- Audio /
Mar 15, 2016
The 8th Annual Global 'Zeitgeist Day' Symposium Promotes Sustainability, Global Unity, and a Post-Scarcity Society Read More >
Jan 31, 2015
Promotes Global Unity, Social Betterment and a More Humane Society Read More >
Sep 12, 2014
Features Live Music, Short Films, Comedy and Art, Promotes Social Consciousness Through the Power of Art Read More >
Mar 01, 2014
Toronto Main Event and Beyond Read More >
Feb 03, 2014
A New Book by The Zeitgeist Movement Read More >
More Press Releases >
Apr 01, 2016 Host: Casey Davidson
In this episode Casey Davidson (Australian national coordinator for TZM) discusses whether the Zeitgeist Movement should interact with political parties, how to find a balance between making ethical choices and connecting with larger audiences as well as introducing the Brisbane chapter's amusing 'Tinfoil hat scale'.
Mar 20, 2016 Host: Jasiek Luszczki
This episode of TZM global is hosted by Jasiek Luszczki from the Polish chapter of TZM. Today's show features an interview with two activists of the Rotterdam TZM Chapter (Holland) - Anthony Jacobi and Robert Schram.
They talk about their way of utilising the NLRBE-like philosophy and code of conduct within the confines of today's monetary system. They present some ideas on how to move away from "business as usual" (working for profit) to "awareness as usual" (generating social capital) mindset.
Feb 10, 2016 Host: James Phillips
This episode of TZM global is hosted by UK chapter member and TZM education coordinator James Phillips and involves an interview with fellow TZM members Jasiek Thejester and Stefan Kengen from the Polish and Danish chapters of TZM respectively about the recent European meeting held in Rotterdam.
Dec 10, 2015 Host: James Phillips
This episode of TZM global is hosted by UK chapter member and co-coordinator of the movements global educational activism project; TZM education, James Phillips.
Along with other movement related news this episode includes a conversation with fellow TZM education member and Hungarian chapter coordinator, Sztella Kantor regarding her experience of taking the materials of TZM education into schools in Hungary.
If you are interested in taking part in this global initiative then please visit: www.tzmeducation.org
*At the time of publication there was an issue with our podcast provider, blogtalk radio. Therefore the show could only be uploaded in it's edited format to you tube at this time. The full version will be released as soon as this issue is resolved.
Nov 25, 2015 Host: James Phillips
Ep 178 European TZM meeting show - Rotterdam. This episode of TZM Global is hosted by UK chapter team member and co-coordinator of TZM Education (www.tzmeducation.org) James Phillips.
This episode includes an interview with the Global Chapters Administration Coordinator Gilbert Ismail regarding the upcoming European TZM Meetup in Rotterdam next month. For more information, please visit the following link: https://www.facebook.com/events/91743...
Also included in this show is a request for more content for TZM Global Radio. Please send pre-recorded submissions to: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Conventional wisdom would have you believe that most people enter adolescence with a head full of high-minded ideals and a willingness to shake up the system. As they get older, however, they gradually begin to accept the status quo. For me, that process is reversed.
The older I get, the more skeptical I become of our current social model. Why?
Let’s start with this:
It should be of increasing concern to all Americans that there is an extreme disconnect between what Americans believe about man-made climate change, and what science tells us about it. That is to say, despite there being a clear scientific consensus, man-made climate change is more often than not framed as an ambiguous concept in the U.S. mainstream media. Consequently, climate change is generally thought to be far more esoteric than it actually is.
INTRODUCTION AND DISCLAIMER 
The purpose of this project is to enable supporters of a natural law resource based economic model (NLRBE) to understand and appreciate the need to approach the education system in an effort to initiate the value shift required for a more peaceful and sustainable future to emerge.
Today I was reading The Zeitgeist Movement Defined: Realizing a New Train of Thought, again. I did so because I feel the need to express certain frustration on this/my social movement but haven’t found the right words. Also I didn’t want to make any false assumptions on its architecture, so I went straight to the source with a pen in my hand.
I went through the 9 pages that constitute the overview and extracted some notes I would like to post in here:
We need more films about the social, ecological and economic change!
We want to make one and you could help us.
In our Documentary "The Taste of Life" we want to show, that there are people in the whole world, already practicing this change in a great way.
From social symptom to root causes came about as a bi-product of ZDAY 2013 in London, in which all but the introductory talk featured exterior organisations and speakers. Each of whom seek to address a particular social or environmental issue closely aligned with the movement’s materials.
From social symptom to root causes came about as a bi-product of ZDAY 2013 in London, in which all but the introductory talk featured exterior organisations and speakers. Each of whom seek to address a particular social or environmental issue closely aligned with the movement’s materials.
Transcript below. Can also be viewed via PDF HERE.
Welcome to: “3 Questions - What do you propose?” This thought exercise is intended for both the average person, concerned about global problems – along with those who are still confused about - or perhaps even in opposition to The Zeitgeist Movement.
Peter Joseph, ZDay 2016 "Where we go from here" March 26th, Athens Greece [ The Zeitgeist Movement ]
The attacks of September 11, 2001, will go down in American history for many reasons—the deaths of nearly 3,000 people chief among them.
A footnote in that particular history book is of interest to us here: 9/11 was the first time robots were used in a real search and rescue effort in the United States. That bit of unofficial history comes from Robin Murphy, director of the Center for Robot-Assisted Search and Rescue (CRASAR) at Texas A&M University, and a leading expert in the field.
In the 15 years since then, roboticists have designed all manner of machines to help mobilize rescue efforts or map disaster areas. There are small robots that can jump high and biobots—bug cyborgs—that can scurry through rubble. Some are humanoid-shaped, while others resemble small Mars rovers. A handful have been deployed into real-life scenarios, while many are still under development.
In the book http://robotics.forfuturepresidents.com/ ">Robotics for Future Presidents, Murphy emphasizes the role that robotics researchers play in disaster response: “Me and my colleagues are researchers in robotics, not disaster responders. Our job is to empower the responders with rescue robots that are easy to use and effective. Rescue robots don’t replace people or dogs. They go to places where people or dogs can’t go and assist responders in innovative ways.”
Debugging a disaster
One of the more recent innovations involves not strictly robots but cyborgs—and not of the two-legged variety.
Researchers at North Carolina State University have created insect cyborgs they can control remotely. Now they are betting the bugs will prove to be valuable cartographers with the assistance of an unmanned aerial vehicle or UAV.
“The idea would be to release a swarm of sensor-equipped biobots—such as remotely controlled cockroaches—into a collapsed building or other dangerous, unmapped area,” says Edgar Lobaton, an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at NC State, in a https://news.ncsu.edu/2016/11/biobot-mapping-tech-2016/ ">press release about two papers describing the work.
The technology developed by Lobaton and colleagues would allow the biobots to move freely within range of a beacon carried aboard a UAV. Radio signals from the biobots are fed into a program that translates the sensor data from their movements into a map of the environment in which the bugs were released.
Lobaton’s work focused on the development of algorithms for mapping using multiple biobots. He says by email that one of the biggest challenges is that typical strategies for determining position, such as GPS or visual sensors, are not well-suited for the biobot swarm.
“This is why we had to develop a new methodology that only depends on weak localization information between the agents,” he says, referring to the insect cyborgs. “In particular, we only use encounter information between them whenever they get within a specific range of each other. This led to the development of a new framework to manage this type of scenario.”
The http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092188901530289X ">article on the framework for developing local maps and stitching them together was published in Robotics and Autonomous Systems. A https://arxiv.org/abs/1607.00051 ">second article on the theory of mapping based on mobile sensors’ proximity to each other was published in IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks.
Jumping over disaster
Duncan Haldane at the University California, Berkeley, developed the world’s highest-jumping untethered robot, modeled on the galago, a nocturnal primate in Africa known for its amazing vertical leap. A visit to a FEMA search and rescue training site inspired the robot, nicknamed SALTO (saltatorial locomotion on terrain obstacles), which is capable of a standing jump up to one meter.
“After seeing how challenging it would be to move rapidly across an urban disaster site, I wanted to figure out some new strategies for robots of any scale that would enable that motion,” says Haldane, whose http://robotics.sciencemag.org/content/1/1/eaag2048 ">work recently appeared in the inaugural issue of Science Robotics.
Biology was his guide: specialized jumpers have a “super-crouch posture, a leg configuration that allows them to stay down for longer, letting their muscles store energy in their stretchy tendons, which is later released to produce high-power jumps,” he says.
“We built a single degree for freedom leg mechanism that uses this idea—new to robotics—and showed that we can produce 2.94 times more jumping power than would have been possible without the leg mechanism,” he explains by email. “Building the leg was hard, and we actually developed new methods for designing linkages to do it.”
Walking toward disaster
Researchers from other parts of the world are developing other types of robots with search and rescue in mind.
For example, a team of Italian researchers is developing Walk-Man. It’s not a retro version of the now-obsolete portable music player, but a nearly two-meter-tall robot meant to be a full-fledged member of a SAR team.
http://www.euronews.com/2016/10/24/humanoid-robots-to-replace-search-and-rescue-workers ">Euronews reported that Walk-Man has joints and motions similar to a human body, with hands capable of powerful manipulations. It is reportedly fitted with a stereo vision system and a rotating 3D-laser scanner. Like Haldane, Italian scientists took some clues from nature.
“Many principles that exist in biology have given us inspiration on how [we could design] a robot,” research engineer Ioannis Sarakoglou tells Euronews, explaining that Walk-Man relies largely on gravity rather than energy to move.
Coming to the rescue
Walk-Man, biobots and Salto may represent the future of rescue robots, but the typical machines used in disaster response today are unmanned aerial, land and marine vehicles—modestly sized robots that provide vital information about places emergency responders can’t immediately reach or assess easily.
In a TEDWomen talk, Murphy says if you can reduce the response to a disaster by one day, you can reduce the overall recovery time by 1,000 days.
“Ground, aerial and marine systems are becoming commonplace for different types of disasters,” Murphy says.
Murphy’s teams and their robots have responded to nearly 50 disasters in a dozen countries since 9/11, including Hurricane Katrina and the Crandall Canyon Utah mine collapse. Hurricane Katrina was the first time an unmanned aerial vehicle was used in disaster response. Now UAVs are a key tool for responders needing to get a bird’s eye view of a disaster scene.
Through CRASAR at Texas A&M, Murphy also leads the volunteer search-and-rescue group Roboticists Without Borders. The organization, in part, matches professionals in the use of ground, aerial or marine robots with agencies around the world that are responding to disasters. Roboticists Without Borders covers expenses for up to 10 days for each incident.
The hope, Murphy says, is to accelerate the adoption and improve the use of robots in disasters through RWB. The goal would be to put Roboticists Without Borders out of business by 2025, she adds.
“Robots can make a disaster go away faster,” Murphy says. “Look for the robots, because robots are coming to the rescue.”
Banner Image Credit: Stephen McNally
Life’s ever-repeating cycles of birth and death are among the most fundamental principles of nature. An organism starts out as a single cell that grows and divides, develops into an embryo, matures and reaches adulthood, but then ages, deteriorates, and eventually succumbs to death.
But why does life have to be cyclic, and why does it have to end in senescence and death?
After all, animals like corals and marine sponges live for thousands of years and are capable of virtually infinite regeneration and cell repair. Even in more complex animals, offspring do not inherit their parents’ age: every new generation starts with cells in a pristine state, with no trace of aging. If senescence is somehow suppressed in reproductive cells, why do the rest of the organism’s tissues end up deteriorating and dying?
Immortal germline—disposable body
At the end of the 19th century, the German biologist http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v41/n1058/abs/041317g0.html ">August Weismann realized that complex organisms consist of two cell types: the “immortal” germline—eternally young cells that give rise to sperm and eggs—and the “disposable” somatic cells that form the rest of the body.
Germline cells form lineages starting with a fertilized egg all the way to the production of new reproductive cells, preserving genetic information and transferring it to the succeeding generations. Soma, on the other hand, contribute no hereditary material and merely form a protective shell that is discarded after reproduction.
Weismann envisioned a simple organism model with a strict separation between germline and soma—the so-called Weismann barrier—in which no age-related deterioration acquired by somatic cells could ever be transmitted via germline to the next generation, which is always born young.
More recently, Weismann’s ideas were given an overhaul by Thomas Kirkwood in his “disposable soma” http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v408/n6809/full/408233a0.html ">theory of aging. Inspired by the ideas of Medawar and Williams, Kirkwood argued that the force of natural selection declines with age, as most organisms in their natural environments die due to external hazards such as predators, parasites and starvation.
At the same time, organisms must invest resources into both the reproductive effort and the maintenance and repair of their somatic cells. But because the probability of surviving external threats declines with time, the optimal strategy is to allocate less and less resources into somatic maintenance as time goes by. Lack of cell repair in the later stages of the life cycle results in the progressive loss of function and gradual decay—aging.
Crucially, Kirkwood realized that his “disposable soma” theory works only if there is a strict distinction between germline and soma. Organisms in which the Weismann barrier is violated—if somatic cells are also used for reproduction, for instance—should not age.
And indeed, the real-world picture turned out to be more complex than Weismann’s model could have predicted.
http://singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/death-and-aging-are-the-evolutionary-price-for-complexity-2.jpg " alt="" width="300" height="300" srcset="http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/death-and-aging-are-the-evolutionary-price-for-complexity-2.jpg 300w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/death-and-aging-are-the-evolutionary-price-for-complexity-2-150x150.jpg 150w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" />In complex animals like mammals, birds and insects, Weismann’s assumption of the rigid germline-soma distinction holds true: only a relatively small group of cells in an adult retain reproductive potential, while the rest become irreversibly differentiated into somatic tissue cells—liver, skin, muscle—that cannot give rise to a new organism.
But this is https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12955842 ">not the case in the most ancient members of the kingdom, such as hydrae, corals and sponges. Even in their adult forms, these organisms maintain large populations of universal stem cells that can generate both somatic and reproductive cells, that is, germline and soma never really segregate. It is the lack of germline sequestration that gives corals and their relatives the power of regeneration and vegetative plant-like reproduction.
Equally impressive is the http://nautil.us/issue/36/aging/why-aging-isnt-inevitable ">variation of animal life spans and the rates of aging.
A typical human life expectancy of some 70-odd years is much longer than the 2-year lifespan characteristic of house mice, but humans are no match for coral colonies that live for millennia with no signs of senescence. Organisms that do not age exist in a state in which chronologically old and young individuals are essentially identical, with universal stem cell populations constantly renewing their somatic and reproductive tissues.
Rather than being universal to all animals, the Weismann barrier appears to be a relatively recent innovation of complex organisms, evolving together with somatic aging and death. What drove the evolution of the separation between germline and soma is not clear, but the answer will also shed light on the origin of mortality in complex animals.
Cellular energetics behind the evolution of aging
There are signs that the evolution of both the germline and the mortal soma is related to cellular energetics.
Animal cells produce energy through respiration in their mitochondria—the organelles of bacterial origin that retain their own tiny genomes, distinct from the chromosomes housed within the nucleus. Each cell contains tens and hundreds of mitochondria, and each mitochondrion has several DNA molecules. This tiny genome regulates mitochondrial function; its integrity is crucial to cellular respiration, as defective mitochondrial genes often lead to debilitating diseases, neuromuscular degeneration and early death.
A large part of mitochondrial gene defects arise from random copying errors in imprecise DNA replication. As cells in a developing organism divide, their mitochondria replicate too, each time introducing new DNA mutations.
In our recent PLOS Biology http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2000410 ">article, we show that in organisms with fast mitochondrial defect accumulation, natural selection favors segregation of an isolated germline with a lower number of cell replication cycles, as it minimizes the damage to the energy-producing organelles that could potentially be transmitted to the next generation. If the pace of error accumulation is slow, however, the strict germline-soma barrier should not evolve.
Our model therefore suggests that “disposable” soma that gave rise to aging and mortality, has evolved as a strategy to maintain mitochondrial quality in complex organisms with multiple tissues and high energy requirements, in which mitochondrial defects accumulate relatively fast.
The frequency at which DNA copying errors arise (mutation rate) varies among animal groups, but this variation is strikingly consistent with the predictions of the new hypothesis.
Mutation rates in higher animals such as mammals, reptiles and birds are remarkably high, 10-50 times the error accumulation rates typical for genes in the nucleus. On the other hand, extremely slow mitochondrial mutation rates are characteristic of the most ancient animal groups and plants that are capable of clonal reproduction, regeneration and seemingly unlimited longevity, and, critically, do not have a strict distinction between the germline and soma.
We believe that the earliest-evolving animals developed and reproduced much like modern-day corals and sponges do: they were sessile filter feeders, had large populations of undifferentiated stem cells continuously producing both somatic and germ cells, and they could regenerate their body parts and reproduce clonally, for example, by separating groups of cells from their somatic tissues, like plants and hydrae do.
Thanks to their low mitochondrial mutation rates, they did not have a true soma and were virtually immortal.
But rising atmospheric http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms8142 ">oxygen levels at the boundary between the Ediacaran and Cambrian periods around 550 million years ago increased metabolic and physical activity in some primordial animal lineages and induced the shift from sessile filter-feeding to higher motility and predation. This must have increased the risk of defect accumulation in their mitochondrial genomes and drove the evolution of secluded and protected germline cells.
The separation of germline and soma enabled the evolution of the staggering complexity in higher animals, but also marked the origin of aging and death.
No longer restrained by the need to maintain immortality, somatic cells gained the power of virtually unrestricted differentiation into highly specialized tissues such as intestine, brain or skin.
Incidentally, the increase in atmospheric oxygen levels at the end of the Ediacaran coincides with the sudden appearance of diverse and complex animal body plans in the fossil record—the so called Cambrian Explosion, that is believed to have given rise to most modern complex animal classes.
A consequence of increasing mitochondrial mutation rates, the strict Weismannian separation of germline and soma enabled the evolution of the staggering complexity in higher animals, but also marked the origin of aging and death.
Only in complex animals do we see disposable tissues with high energy requirements that accumulate high levels of mitochondrial defects but are no longer renewed or regenerated. Neural cells within the human brain, for instance, are often the first ones to be affected by mitochondrial diseases, but are generally not replaced, as this would alter the network of synaptic connections that is ultimately responsible for our memories, personality and intelligence.
Animal complexity, strong somatic differentiation into many types of specialized tissues and organs, and even consciousness were all made possible by the strict germline-soma dichotomy, and so are intrinsically linked to mortality.
Longevity has long been the pursuit of humankind, and even though our life expectancy is currently on the rise, there is a limit to what is possible—immortality could be fundamentally incompatible with the biological complexity of animals with high-energy lifestyles.
Image Credit: http://www.shutterstock.com ">Shutterstock
https://www.wired.com/2017/01/d-wave-turns-open-source-democratize-quantum-computing/ " target="_blank">Quantum Computing Is Real, and D-Wave Just Open-Sourced It
Klint Finley | WIRED
"https://github.com/dwavesystems/qbsolv ">Qbsolv is designed to help developers program D-Wave machines without needing a background in quantum physics... today the company released Qbsolv as open source, meaning anyone will be able to freely share and modify the software... The goal, Ewald says, is to kickstart a quantum computing software tools ecosystem and foster a community of developers working on quantum computing problems."
https://www.wired.com/2017/01/computers-can-tell-glance-youve-got-genetic-disorders/ " target="_blank">Thanks to AI, Computers Can Now See Your Health Problems
Megan Molteni | WIRED
"Face2Gene takes advantage of the fact that so many genetic conditions have a tell-tale 'face'—a unique constellation of features that can provide clues to a potential diagnosis. It is just one of several new technologies taking advantage of how quickly modern computers can analyze, sort, and find patterns across huge reams of data."
FUTURE OF WORK
https://mobile.nytimes.com/2017/01/12/technology/robots-will-take-jobs-but-not-as-fast-as-some-fear-new-report-says.html " target="_blank">Robots Will Take Jobs, but Not as Fast as Some Fear, New Report Says
Steve Lohr | The New York Times
"Globally, the McKinsey researchers calculated that 49 percent of time spent on work activities could be automated with 'currently demonstrated technology' either already in the marketplace or being developed in labs. That, the report says, translates into $15.8 trillion in wages and the equivalent of 1.1 billion workers worldwide. But only 5 percent of jobs can be entirely automated." (Access the full McKinsey Global Institute report http://www.mckinsey.com/global-themes/digital-disruption/harnessing-automation-for-a-future-that-works " target="_blank">here.)
https://www.fastcompany.com/3066706/robot-revolution/will-bots-finally-start-to-grow-up-in-2017 " target="_blank">Will Bots Finally Start to Grow up in 2017?
Mark Sullivan | Fast Company
"The big platform companies like Google, Facebook, Apple, and Microsoft have lots of people working on artificial intelligence, and many of them are applying AI in a bot setting. It’s pretty likely that we’ll see Act 2 of the bot story in 2017, and the user experience will improve somewhat."
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/darpa-rsquo-s-biotech-chief-says-2017-will-ldquo-blow-our-minds-rdquo/ ">DARPA's Biotech Chief Says 2017 Will "Blow Our Minds" (Interview)
Dina Fine Maron | Scientific American
"The director of its BTO, neuroprosthetic researcher Justin Sanchez, recently spoke with Scientific American about what to expect from his office in 2017, including work on neural implants to aid healthy people in their everyday lives and other advances that he says will 'change the game' in medicine."
http://paleofuture.gizmodo.com/watching-david-bowie-argue-with-an-interviewer-about-th-1791017656 " target="_blank">Watching David Bowie Argue With an Interviewer About the Future of the Internet Is Beautiful
Matt Novak | GIZMODO
"Bowie had a back and forth with the interviewer, who at one point says that claims being made for the future of the internet are 'hugely exaggerated.' Bowie shoots back with a wallop of sarcasm about people who doubted that things like the telephone would change the world. 'I don’t think we’ve even seen the tip of the iceberg,' Bowie explained to the BBC. 'I think we’re actually on the cusp of something exhilarating and terrifying.'"
http://motherboard.vice.com/en_ca/read/an-earth-sized-telescope-is-about-to-see-a-black-hole-for-the-first-time?trk_source=homepage-lede " target="_blank">An Earth-Sized Telescope Is About to 'See' a Black Hole for the First Time
William Rauscher | Motherboard
"Black holes challenge our most fundamental beliefs about reality. Visionary scientific minds, including the theoretical physicists Stephen Hawking and Kip Thorne, have devoted entire books to unpacking the hallucinatory scenarios thought to be induced by black holes’ gravitational forces."
Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D-Wave_Systems#/media/File:DWave_128chip.jpg " target="_blank">Wikipedia Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
The quest for the fountain of youth is as ancient as humanity itself. Now, it appears scientists may have found the source.
Using a process designed to “reprogram” normal adult cells into pluripotent stem cells—cells that can transform into many different kinds of cells—researchers have managed to boost the life spans of mice by up to 30% and rejuvenate some of their tissues.
The treatment did not change the cell’s genetic code, but rather chemical attachments on their DNA called epigenetic marks, responsible for regulating the genome and determining how active certain genes are.
The findings suggest that epigenetic changes are at the heart of the aging process, and offer the tantalizing possibility that those changes may be malleable and possibly even reversible.
“Our study shows that aging may not have to proceed in one single direction,” Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, a professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego who led the research, https://www.salk.edu/news-release/turning-back-time-salk-scientists-reverse-signs-aging/ ">said in a press release. “It has plasticity and, with careful modulation, aging might be reversed.”
In 2006, Japanese researcher Shinya Yamanaka showed that it was possible to convert adult cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by exposing them to four specific transcription factors (proteins that regulate gene expression). He won a Nobel prize for the discovery in 2012 and the factors are now named after him.
Other researchers have since shown that reprogramming adult cells into stem cells http://genesdev.cshlp.org/content/25/21/2248.long ">appears to rejuvenate them. But most studies have only achieved this in the petri dish, and attempts to induce pluripotency in animals have resulted in them http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v502/n7471/full/nature12586.html ">developing tumors.
Normally the reprogramming process requires the cells to be exposed to the Yamanaka factors for weeks at a time. But in http://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(16)31664-6 ">a paper published in the journal Cell last week, the Salk researchers describe how they discovered that reducing the exposure time resulted in the reversal of many of the hallmarks of aging without fully reprogramming the cells.
They started by testing the approach on cells from mice with progeria, a disease that causes accelerated aging in both mice and humans. The results were promising, so they decided to see if they could induce the same process in live animals.
They genetically modified mice to respond to the antibiotic doxycycline by switching on four genes that produce the Yamanaka factors before cycling the mice on and off the drug, administering it for two days and then withholding it for five.
This partial reprogramming extended the mice’ lifespan from 18 weeks to 24 on average. The mice looked visibly younger, their organ function improved, and importantly, they did not develop tumors.
To see if the approach was isolated to mice with progeria, the researchers then tested it on normal middle-aged mice. They found that partial reprogramming enhanced the regeneration of muscle tissue and beta cells in the pancreas after injury.
Applying partial reprogramming to human skin cells in a dish also made them look and behave young again, but the researchers concede there is a long way to go before they can determine if the approach could lead to potential treatments for people.
“Obviously, mice are not humans and we know it will be much more complex to rejuvenate a person,” said Belmonte. “But this study shows that aging is a very dynamic and plastic process, and therefore will be more amenable to therapeutic interventions than what we previously thought.”
The Salk researchers hope that using easier-to-handle chemicals instead of the Yamanaka factors to reverse the epigenetic changes may prove more practical, but they say it could easily take a decade to get clearance for clinical trials.
Nevertheless, the study provides support for the idea that aging is driven by these epigenetic changes. In humans these changes can often be caused by environmental factors like pollution, stress or smoking and gradually accumulate throughout our lives, making us more vulnerable to disease.
“I do think that epigenetic reprogramming is the ultimate way to reverse aging,” David Sinclair, a Harvard University geneticist and anti-aging researcher, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/aging-is-reversible-at-least-in-human-cells-and-live-mice/ ">told Scientific American. “This work is the first glimmer that we could live for centuries,” he added.
Compounds like rapamycin and resveratrol, and practices like calorie restriction and transplanting blood from young mice into new mice, have been demonstrated to have anti-aging effects too. Matt Kaeberlein, a molecular biologist at the University of Washington, told Scientific American this suggests there may be more than one aging process at play and therefore extending longevity may require a combination of therapies.
Belmonte told the magazine that it’s possible aging is actually regulated by a single tissue. His lab’s working hypothesis is that this may be the hypothalamus region of the brain, which controls things like hormones, body temperature and circadian rhythms.
It is not yet clear whether the partial reprogramming process affects all tissues in the same way. Regeneration biologist Clive Svendsen of Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/12/researchers-rejuvenate-aging-mice-stem-cell-genes ">told Science Magazine the study certainly proves that it can rejuvenate some tissues.
But he would like to see studies demonstrating an increase in longevity in healthy animals and also proof that the approach can reduce the effects of aging in the nervous system before he gets too excited.
“Who wants to have a young heart and an old brain?” he said.
Image Credit: http://www.shutterstock.com ">Shutterstock
We live in challenging times. Geopolitical turmoil, local and national social unrest, cycles of deadly natural disasters, cyber hacks, rising distrust of media and tech companies—many recent disruptive events have taken us by surprise.
Nearly two decades ago, military planners coined an acronym to capture the nature of an increasingly unpredictable and dynamic world. They called it https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volatility,_uncertainty,_complexity_and_ambiguity " target="_blank">VUCA—an environment of nonstop volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity.
The world today embodies VUCA more so than any era we’ve recently experienced.
Why do so many of us—individually and collectively—fail to imagine, let alone anticipate, the massive and disruptive changes that are unfolding? Driven by https://singularityhub.com/2016/03/22/technology-feels-like-its-accelerating-because-it-actually-is/ " target="_blank">fast moving technologies and globalization, the pace of change is accelerating, our brains are struggling to keep up, and surprise, discomfort, and unrest are the result.
This is no anomaly. VUCA isn’t going away. Change promises to speed up, not slow down. To thrive in a world where “change is the only constant,” leaders need to replace old thinking with a new framework.
http://singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/shutterstock_338398544-300x300.jpg " width="300" height="300" srcset="http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/shutterstock_338398544-300x300.jpg 300w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/shutterstock_338398544-150x150.jpg 150w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/shutterstock_338398544-768x768.jpg 768w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/shutterstock_338398544-900x900.jpg 900w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/shutterstock_338398544-696x696.jpg 696w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/shutterstock_338398544-420x420.jpg 420w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/shutterstock_338398544.jpg 1000w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" />
https://singularityhub.com/2016/04/05/how-to-think-exponentially-and-better-predict-the-future/ " target="_blank">Exponential change calls for exponential leaders. But what exactly does that mean?
In this article, we’ll explore the four pillars of exponential leadership. These are the critical skills leaders must learn to successfully navigate a rapidly changing world—not just to create strategic advantage for their organizations, but also to help build the kind of inclusive, equitable, positive and https://singularityhub.com/2016/11/01/why-the-world-is-better-than-ever-and-will-get-better-still/ " target="_blank">abundant future we all want to live in.
Some leaders already excel at some of these skills. An exponential leader strives to master them all, clearly understands how they influence each other, and in practice, models them as an integrated whole much more powerful than its parts.
The first skill of exponential leadership is learning to transform surprise into mindful anticipation. To do this, leaders have to become skilled futurists.
This does not mean simply extrapolating today’s pace of change into the future. It means imagining new possibilities boldly and optimistically—and understanding they are quite likely to arise sooner than expected. Leaders will have to get equally comfortable with what can be known and with exploring what is unknown.
This is not how many leaders currently operate.
Today, leaders typically manage risk with a variety of analytic processes and frameworks that identify and quantify known variables. In most organizations, the future is primarily projected through numerical forecasts and spreadsheets, reinforcing a perspective that the world is an extension of what we know today, and that we can plug in some numeric formula to calculate quantifiable predictions.
The problem, however, is these forecasts rely on understanding current variables and existing trends. We see future events as a new version of past events, presuming the pace of change will move in a straight line. In reality, the line curves upward, and new variables—unforeseen technologies, for example—always enter the equation.
The result? Forecasts fall short. At best, we’re shocked, at worst disrupted.
http://singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Artboard-1-copy-15-2-900x220.jpg " alt="" width="640" height="156" srcset="http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Artboard-1-copy-15-2-900x220.jpg 900w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Artboard-1-copy-15-2-300x73.jpg 300w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Artboard-1-copy-15-2-768x187.jpg 768w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Artboard-1-copy-15-2-696x170.jpg 696w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Artboard-1-copy-15-2-1068x260.jpg 1068w" sizes="(max-width: 640px) 100vw, 640px" />
It’s not that we aren’t capable of imagining new narratives for the future or widening the set of probable futures we consider. It’s mostly that we’ve never been taught how or given permission to do this as part of our “day job.”
As futurists, leaders need to get comfortable asking open-ended questions about unspoken assumptions to see new possibilities. They need to be curious about the future and blend imaginative practices of strategic foresight, futures backcasting, science fiction design and scenario planning into traditional business planning.
In addition to imagining a range of new futures, leaders must also act as innovators, discovering new ideas through creative ideation and rigorous experimentation. These days, great product ideas can come from a single tweet or a surprising customer interaction and be tested with a working prototype in less than 24 hours.
Yet, many businesses still focus primarily on getting existing products to market faster while reducing costs and increasing margins.
The underlying strategic bet is placed on certainty by minimizing variability. And if they are experiencing success, the focus is on defending and expanding what exists rather than exploring new opportunities through ongoing discovery.
What’s often missing is a deep understanding of the customer on the other side of the transaction, much less any ongoing investment in designing and developing new products and services to satisfy emerging customer needs and requirements.
When leaders embrace their role as innovators, they realize they must always be thinking about the customer. They use human-centered processes, such as observation and questioning, to collect insights; they use visual thinking and storytelling skills to share hypotheses and ideas quickly and effectively; and they embrace a growth mindset to test and gather evidence on what they’ve learned.
Rigorous innovators do this continually, iterating over and over to uncover opportunities obscured by the fog of uncertainty.
As technology innovation accelerates, leaders have to understand which technologies will directly impact their industry and which will affect adjacent industries. Increasingly, technology can digitize, manipulate and replace physical products and services, challenging the status quo of many existing companies.
The best way to understand technological change is not to read about it, but to experience it first-hand by learning to code, building or manipulating a simple robot, trying new products and services that go beyond what’s familiar or comfortable, and seeking the resources of innovation and experimentation.
http://singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Artboard-1-copy-15-1-900x220.jpg " alt="" width="640" height="156" srcset="http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Artboard-1-copy-15-1-900x220.jpg 900w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Artboard-1-copy-15-1-300x73.jpg 300w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Artboard-1-copy-15-1-768x187.jpg 768w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Artboard-1-copy-15-1-696x170.jpg 696w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Artboard-1-copy-15-1-1068x260.jpg 1068w" sizes="(max-width: 640px) 100vw, 640px" />
However, understanding technology solely from an engineering or R&D perspective is not enough. Exponential leaders will also have to grapple with the ethical, moral and social implications of the technologies they build their organizations around.
Technology disruption is quickly outpacing existing regulations, laws, and societal norms. There are already on-going tax and labor feuds between industry disruptors such as Airbnb and Uber and the communities they serve.
But those legal battles pale in comparison to the ethical battles we may soon face when workers in large industries such as food or transportation are replaced by autonomous systems. And we’ve hardly begun to explore the implications of a future in which genetic modifications have become significantly more accessible and widespread.
Policy and ethics are not independent of technology, and technology does not operate in a protected silo apart from either. If leaders bet on the massive new revenue potential or cost saving opportunities that technology offers, they must also embrace the societal and moral implications that will inevitably follow.
This will require a whole new set of discussions and decisions in the boardrooms of every corporation, new behaviors and norms in every product development lab, and new ways of educating, rewarding (and even penalizing) tomorrow’s leaders.
Exponential leaders use the skills and behaviors of futurist, innovator and technologist to improve the lives of the people they touch, and society as a whole. They aim to do well by doing good—not as a separate set of “corporate social responsibility” activities, but as part of the integrated company mission.
Leading as a humanitarian can mean explicitly building a business using technology to create positive impact. B corporations, for example, are for-profit companies certified to meet rigorous standards of social and environmental performance, accountability, and transparency. It can also mean investing in humane policies and practices that create a positive culture and a meaningful work environment. A workplace that inspires employees and partners to strive toward their full potential.
Increasingly technology can also generate fundamentally new business models and growth opportunities enabling and empowering more new parts of the world to become sustainable and autonomous economic centers of growth.
When Google’s hot air balloons connect the most rural and underdeveloped areas to universal high-speed internet, or micro-drones deliver medical supplies after natural disasters, we can start to imagine a world where the ultimate resource technology amplifies is our imagination to believe anything is possible.
Our Future Needs Exponential Leaders
These roles—futurist, innovator, technologist and humanitarian—are interconnected and enhanced when knowledge and insights flow between them. The four pillars are a holistic system of learning to imagine, create, capture and scale hidden value in an increasingly complex and dynamic world.
This is the essence of exponential leadership.
By practicing these new skills, all leaders can improve their capacity to not only anticipate change, but also make proactive choices leading to more positive, productive futures for their organizations, communities and the world.
Image source: https://www.shutterstock.com " target="_blank">Shutterstock
Few of us are graced with a perfect mouthful of teeth. If it’s not braces or cavities, it’s wisdom teeth or root canals. Adding injury to insult, while medicine has made a lot of progress in multiple fields over the years, dentistry has remained stubbornly stuck to the same painful, outdated techniques.
I was lucky enough not to need braces as a kid, but a persistent sugar addiction meant every time I visited the dentist I had at least one cavity. To this day, I can’t hear the sound of a drill—or even think about going to the dentist—without cringing.
A study published in http://www.nature.com/articles/srep39654 ">Scientific Reports last week may be good news for fellow dentist-fearers. The study details the success of trials in which a stem cell treatment was used to repair tooth decay in mice.
Normally, when our teeth get cavities the dentist clears out the decayed material then fills in the empty space with one of various materials, including porcelain, silver amalgam, or composite resin. These fillings work well enough, but after a few years they typically need to be replaced, and can end up weakening teeth to the point that they need to be extracted.
What if teeth could instead repair themselves, independently regenerating decayed material?
To some extent, teeth already do this. When the inner pulp of a tooth is exposed, http://www.eurostemcell.org/mesenchymal-stem-cells-other-bone-marrow-stem-cells ">mesenchymal stem cells—which can differentiate to become cartilage, bone or fat cells—mobilize to form tooth-specific cells called https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15147714 ">odontoblasts. These secrete dentine, a reparative substance that seals off the tooth pulp from the external environment.
This natural process is enough to repair minor fissures below the tooth’s surface enamel, but doesn’t cut it when it comes to cavities. The new treatment involves accelerating the tooth’s natural dentine production to repair larger defects.
Scientists found that tideglusib, a drug typically used to treat neurological conditions like Alzheimer’s and autism, can be used to stimulate stem cell differentiation in the tooth’s pulp. These create more odontoblasts, which create more dentine.
In the study, scientists inserted a biodegradable collagen sponge soaked in tideglusib into mice’s teeth, then sealed the teeth with a dental adhesive. Over the course of a few weeks, the sponges degraded and were replaced by newly-produced dentine.
So the good news is, signs point to teeth being able to repair themselves, no need for artificial fillings.
The bad news is, a dentist would still need to use a drill to get rid of the decayed part of a tooth. Dentist-fearers could take some comfort, though, in knowing the process would be a one-time thing, with no need for filling replacement or tooth extraction down the road.
Scientists are currently moving to testing the procedure in rats, whose teeth are bigger than those of mice. If successful, human trials could start later this year.
It’s possible our teeth are too big for the treatment to work. Mouse teeth are much smaller than ours, so the spaces filled by the stem cell treatment were significantly smaller too.
If the treatment does work in humans, I’ll be one of many people grateful to know that my visits to the dentist’s chair could soon be fewer and farther between.
Banner Image Credit: http://www.shutterstock.com ">Shutterstock
From the beginning of time, conception has been a two-person process. Even in cases where there would have been a medical or genetic benefit to pulling in a third person, science hadn’t advanced enough to make it possible.
But after years of research and an FDA ban, the first baby conceived using an IVF procedure that gives a http://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/28/health/birth-of-3-parent-baby-a-success-for-controversial-procedure.html ">child DNA from three different people was born in April 2016. In December of the same year, the UK became the first country to approve the procedure.
Fertility clinics can apply for a license to perform a treatment called spindle transfer, which aims to avoid passing mitochondrial diseases from mother to child by pulling a third participant into the conception process to supply healthy mitochondrial DNA.
The news shows how biotechnology is challenging the most basic foundations of biology and reproduction and foreshadows looming ethical battles.
Rare but deadly
Mitochondria are responsible for generating energy in cells. The parts of the body where mitochondria are most crucial are those that require the most energy—like the brain, heart and lungs—and, not coincidentally, are the most fundamental to our health and survival.
Only 37 of the 3,000 genes that give rise to a mitochondrion are http://www.umdf.org/what-is-mitochondrial-disease/ ">encoded by mitochondrial DNA—the rest come from the cell nucleus—but mutations in any one of those 37 can cause serious congenital diseases, most of which have no cure.
Even if a mother has just a small percentage of faulty mitochondria, the percentage can multiply in her child. The disease affects about one in 5,000 people, or .02 percent of the population.
Using in-vitro fertilization to decrease a child’s odds of mitochondrial disease isn’t brand new. The late 1990s and early 2000s saw multiple babies born through a technique called cytoplasmic transfer, which was later banned by the FDA due to worries about associated birth defects.
Cytoplasmic transfer vs. spindle transfer
Both of these techniques combine components from two eggs with one sperm, but their mechanics are significantly different. Cytoplasmic transfer is simpler: a small portion of cytoplasm—the gel-like ‘white’ of the egg—from a donor is inserted into the mother’s egg along with the sperm. The idea behind the technique is that healthy mitochondria will replicate faster than ailing mitochondria, thus giving cells the energy they need.
The technique just approved in the UK is called spindle transfer. This method involves a full change-out of the protein fibers that carry chromosomes, or the spindle. The spindle from a donor egg is removed, leaving only the cytoplasm and its healthy mitochondria. The spindle from the mother’s egg is inserted, then a sperm cell is injected into the egg to fertilize it. A small amount of the mother’s https://www.sciencenews.org/article/three-parent-babies-explained ">mitochondria (less than 1%) also transfer over to the donor’s egg, and the potential long-term health impact of that tiny proportion is unknown.
Is the third parent a parent?
Though these engineered embryos contain DNA from two women and one man, it’s questionable whether the second woman—the one who donates cytoplasm only—can really be called a parent of the resulting child. The DNA in mitochondria has no influence on a person’s physical features, personality, or other traits. Rather than taking the best of traits from three different people, babies born through this technique will still have to contend just with dad’s big nose or mom’s wide feet.
Spindle transfer falls under the umbrella of the highly-charged designer babies debate, with opposition to any sort of genetic alteration of embryos widespread on ethical grounds. It’ll be a while before the technique is more widely approved, though, as doubts remain about its long-term health effects and as yet unknown dangers.
Mitochondria could revert to the faulty type carried by the mother, or the mixed DNA from three people could cause illness. The https://www.genome.gov/11006943/human-genome-project-completion-frequently-asked-questions/ ">human genome has 3 billion base pairs of DNA, and https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/mitochondrial-dna ">mitochondria have about 16,500, so the number of potential interactions between these is high. The implications of those interactions over the course of a lifetime remain to be seen, but for mothers who need it, UK fertility clinics will be ready to help.
Image Credit: http://www.shutterstock.com ">Shutterstock
I just returned from Las Vegas, after walking 20,000 steps on the floor of the annual Consumer Electronics Show (CES).
It’s huge. For reference, CES showcases 2.47 million square feet of exhibit space, hosts 180,000 visitors, and welcomes 8,000 members of the media from around the world.
If you didn’t get a chance to go this year, here’s a three-minute video summary on drones and a three-minute summary on other tech.
These were my top highlights—the 0.1% that I think are worth your time.
Check them out:
Video 1: https://youtu.be/nvO2MuFHXMI ">DRONES
Video 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Su6JeoU3Oo4&feature=youtu.be " target="_blank">AR, Cars and Robots
Image Credit: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Su6JeoU3Oo4&feature=youtu.be ">Peter H. Diamandis/YouTube
Digitization and automation are ever-growing topics in relation to the workplace.
A famous Oxford study on the http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/downloads/academic/The_Future_of_Employment.pdf " target="_blank">future of employment from 2013 estimated that up to 47% of American jobs may be automated by 2035; a brand new http://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/digital-mckinsey/our-insights/where-machines-could-replace-humans-and-where-they-cant-yet " target="_blank">McKinsey study shows that current technologies could automate 45 percent of job activities; and the business mantra goes that if you can digitize, you should digitize to gain a competitive advantage.
But how do we, as human beings, really feel about potentially working with or even for AIs, and what impact do we think they will have on our workplace?
A recent study conducted in the US, UK and Denmark explores people’s openness towards working with and for “unbiased computer programs”—defined as “a software robot that makes decisions or proposals for decisions based on data from HR, financial or market information. The software robot is unbiased, i.e. it is not affected by the personal, social and cultural bias that influence human decision making, but balances all input only based on the data.”
The study shows some surprising results in openness, and big geographical differences.
The robots are probably coming
While still not a mainstream perception, 30 percent of US citizens from the study agreed or strongly agreed “it is likely that my current job will be replaced by new technology.” 43 percent disagreed or strongly disagreed.
Interestingly, in a country like Denmark only 18 percent agreed with that statement and 63 percent disagreed with it. This indicates that Danes lack awareness of the threat to their jobs, which we know from other studies is very real. Digitization and automation is moving at a much faster pace than most people think.
http://singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Screen-Shot-2016-11-30-at-10.32.26-PM-900x463.jpg " alt="screen-shot-2016-11-30-at-10-32-26-pm" width="640" height="329" srcset="http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Screen-Shot-2016-11-30-at-10.32.26-PM-900x463.jpg 900w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Screen-Shot-2016-11-30-at-10.32.26-PM-300x154.jpg 300w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Screen-Shot-2016-11-30-at-10.32.26-PM-768x395.jpg 768w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Screen-Shot-2016-11-30-at-10.32.26-PM-696x358.jpg 696w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Screen-Shot-2016-11-30-at-10.32.26-PM-1068x550.jpg 1068w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Screen-Shot-2016-11-30-at-10.32.26-PM-816x420.jpg 816w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Screen-Shot-2016-11-30-at-10.32.26-PM.jpg 1446w" sizes="(max-width: 640px) 100vw, 640px" />
Are AIs more ethical and trustworthy than humans?
37 percent of Americans in the study agreed that an unbiased computer program “would be more trustworthy and ethical than my current workplace leaders and managers.” Following up on that, 38 percent “would prefer my job performance to be assessed by an unbiased computer program rather than by human managers.”
There is a logic to this.
AIs should make better evaluations than human beings, if they can do so without the personal, social and cultural biases that influence human decision making, particularly in regards to areas like job performance, which can be supported by quantifiable measures. Given that it is within narrow AI with a dedicated purpose that we are seeing the strongest development (think IBM’s Watson beating humans at Jeopardy or Deep Mind beating the Go champion), this is exactly what we will see much more of in the shorter term.
But we must also not forget it’s not a given that AIs are, or will be, without bias as long as they are designed by humans (see the very good read https://www.amazon.com/Weapons-Math-Destruction-Increases-Inequality/dp/0553418815 " target="_blank">Weapons of Math Destruction, by Cathy O’Neil, for more on this topic).
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Is a poor work environment a competitive advantage?
What is perhaps the most surprising result of the study is that 32 percent of Americans agree that they would “prefer my workplace to be managed by an unbiased computer program instead of a human manager.”
This points to a much deeper issue: a general discontent with one’s workplace. According to the https://www.conference-board.org/publications/publicationdetail.cfm?publicationid=2785 " target="_blank">2014 Conference Board Job Satisfaction survey, 52.3 percent of Americans are unhappy at work. One third are apparently so unhappy that they would replace their bosses with an AI.
Interestingly, only five percent of Danes agree with this statement, while a whopping 81 percent disagree. Danes’ general job satisfaction is also much higher. A new study by the http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-14-467_en.htm " target="_blank">European Commission shows that 94 percent of Danish workers are satisfied with their conditions at work. And, by the way, Danes are also rated the happiest people on the planet according to the https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/11/the-worlds-happiest-countries-in-2016/ " target="_blank">World Happiness Report.
When asked about their workplace being managed “by an unbiased computer program together with a human manager rather than by a human manager alone,” Americans’ agreement rises to 45 percent, and Danes’ to 17 percent.
The interesting dilemma here, and a thesis to explore further, is that there seems to be a correlation between happiness at work and openness towards AIs in the workplace. Americans are far more open to AIs at work, even as managers, than Danes, and they are far less happy at work.
http://singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Screen-Shot-2016-11-30-at-10.33.28-PM-900x609.jpg " alt="screen-shot-2016-11-30-at-10-33-28-pm" width="640" height="433" srcset="http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Screen-Shot-2016-11-30-at-10.33.28-PM-900x609.jpg 900w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Screen-Shot-2016-11-30-at-10.33.28-PM-300x203.jpg 300w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Screen-Shot-2016-11-30-at-10.33.28-PM-768x520.jpg 768w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Screen-Shot-2016-11-30-at-10.33.28-PM-696x471.jpg 696w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Screen-Shot-2016-11-30-at-10.33.28-PM-1068x723.jpg 1068w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Screen-Shot-2016-11-30-at-10.33.28-PM-621x420.jpg 621w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Screen-Shot-2016-11-30-at-10.33.28-PM.jpg 1448w" sizes="(max-width: 640px) 100vw, 640px" />
Common sense and several research studies suggest high job satisfaction creates a competitive advantage. But perhaps this will not be true in the future. As companies increasingly digitize and automate—also on management level—this study suggests they will have more support in doing so in American companies because existing work culture is perceived as being more ripe for cultural disruption. In Denmark, where almost everyone is satisfied at work, there is far less perceived need for change.
Will this happiness turn out to be a disadvantage for Danes in the longer term because it will hold back digitization and automation in the workplace? Will a poorer work environment in the US turn out to be the country’s biggest competitive advantage? What if we could combine the two—a high degree of digitization plus a high level of happiness at work? Imagine what that could let us achieve.
The study was carried out in Denmark, the UK and the USA in August 2016 by DARE2 and Bloch&Østergaard. Parts of the study were inspired by Intensions.co and futurist Nicolas Badminton (http://www.intensions.co/news/2016/3/29/intensions-future-of-work )">http://www.intensions.co/news/2016/3/29/intensions-future-of-work )
If you want to know more, contact Kris Østergaard, Chief Innovation Officer, DARE2 & Faculty, Singularity University: mailto:kris@DARE2.dk ">kris@DARE2.dk or +45 4181 8151.
The future depends on how well we've https://singularityhub.com/2016/11/20/how-we-can-save-our-history-one-smartphone-at-a-time/ ">preserved the past. Tomorrow’s breakthroughs are built from today’s innovation. To continue the trend, we must keep preserving information properly for future generations. If we leave indecipherable records, important knowledge is trapped in plain sight.
While https://singularityhub.com/2016/02/25/have-we-finally-achieved-information-immortality/ ">we’ve made progress, the dream of completely preserving knowledge across generations escapes us still, and digital bits are particularly vulnerable. There’s no guarantee our digital tools will be available forever—even a century from now. And without them, much knowledge and culture will be inaccessible, left rusting away on impenetrable hard drives.
The http://longnow.org/about/ ">Long Now Foundation focuses on this vision of long-term cultural preservation, and the preservation of language—a prime tool of culture—is central to their quest.
“Fifty to ninety percent of the world's languages are predicted to disappear in the next century, many with little or no significant documentation,” according to Long Now. To save these languages, the foundation invented a rather ingenious solution.
http://singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Rosetta_Wearable_and_Rosetta_V1_Disk-1_300px.jpg " alt="rosetta_wearable_and_rosetta_v1_disk-1_300px" width="300" height="298" srcset="http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Rosetta_Wearable_and_Rosetta_V1_Disk-1_300px.jpg 300w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Rosetta_Wearable_and_Rosetta_V1_Disk-1_300px-150x150.jpg 150w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" />Embedded in a sphere of steel and glass, the http://rosettaproject.org/disk/concept/ ">“Rosetta Disk” is a physical disk containing over 13,000 pages etched with information on over 1,500 different human languages. The disk itself is made of electroformed nickel, contains useful information down to the nanoscale, was built to withstand multiple generations, and only requires basic technology to read—a microscope.
That is, massive amounts of critical information stored away, no computer required.
According to http://rosettaproject.org/about/ ">the Long Now website, the disk “serves as a means to focus attention on the problem of digital obsolescence, and ways we might address that problem through creative archival storage methods.”
Depending on what the future holds, the Rosetta Disk may be the only chance for certain languages to survive beyond living members. But there’s only a few such disks.
So, the Long Now foundation decided to simplify, miniaturize, and distribute.
Now, anybody can own and https://rosettaproject.org/disk/wearable/ ">wear the Rosetta Disk on a necklace. Shrunken down to a wearable size of two centimeters in diameter, the Rosetta Wearable Disk gives anyone the ability to wear the key to human language for future generations.
To make the disk wearable, the language selection was limited to around 1,000 from over 1,500. And the text included was simplified too. Chosen from freely available information to support http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/05/dramatic-statement-european-leaders-call-immediate-open-access-all-scientific-papers ">open access, the final documents placed on the disk include:
- http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/ ">The Preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (327 languages)
- https://dev.panlex.org/panlex-swadesh-corpus/ ">Swadesh vocabulary lists assembled by the https://panlex.org/ ">PanLex Project (719 languages)
- http://longnow.org/store/clock-long-now-time-and-responsibility-stewart-brand/ ">"The Clock of the Long Now" by Stewart Brand
- Updated diagrams for the http://longnow.org/clock/ ">10,000 Year Clock
http://singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Rosetta_Wearable_Spiral_Graphic_Side_300px.jpg " alt="rosetta_wearable_spiral_graphic_side_300px" width="300" height="300" srcset="http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Rosetta_Wearable_Spiral_Graphic_Side_300px.jpg 300w, http://cdn.singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Rosetta_Wearable_Spiral_Graphic_Side_300px-150x150.jpg 150w" sizes="(max-width: 300px) 100vw, 300px" />Adhering to the principles of https://www.lockss.org/about/principles/ ">“Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe,” the wearable Rosetta Disk has taken the first step towards preservation at scale for an archive of this magnitude. (And a copy of the full-size disk is http://sci.esa.int/rosetta/31242-rosetta-disk-goes-back-to-the-future/ ">currently sitting on a comet, deep in space.)
While the disk itself is a little pricey—https://rosettaproject.org/disk/wearable/ ">a $1,000 lifetime membership donation to the Long Now—the value of the information and efforts behind it is immeasurable. For now, the wearable disk is only available as a limited numbered edition.
Over time, we’ll see how the project unfolds.
But you don't need to own a disk to access the library. The archive is http://rosettaproject.org/archive/showcase/ ">freely available online, including an https://rosettaproject.org/disk/interactive/ ">interactive graphic for browsing.
Image Credit: http://www.meganbayleyphotography.com/ ">Megan Bayley