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Dec 31, 2014
Promotes Global Unity, Social Betterment and a More Humane Society Read More >
Sep 12, 2014
Features Live Music, Short Films, Comedy and Art, Promotes Social Consciousness Through the Power of Art Read More >
Mar 01, 2014
Toronto Main Event and Beyond Read More >
Feb 03, 2014
A New Book by The Zeitgeist Movement Read More >
Jul 01, 2013
"Changing the World Through Socially Conscious Art" Read More >
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Apr 15, 2015 Host: James Phillips
This week’s episode of TZM global is hosted by James Phillips from TZM education and the UK chapter of TZM. Along with some brief news from the movement James will be reading the next two articles from the minds in the making section of www.tzmeducation.org entitled 'Building a learning environment' and 'Building a new paradigm from the inside out'.
These articles outline educational and transitional models/methods that could help to shape the mindset required for a sustainable socio-economic system to emerge.
Apr 11, 2015 Host: James Phillips
TZM Global Ep. 171 with Jim Phillips: Education as a tool for Social Change [ The Zeitgeist Movement ]
This weeks episode of TZM global is hosted by TZM Education co-ordinator and UK chapter member James Phillips.
Along with a ZDAY Berlin round up and some other news, James will be reading the next two articles from the TZME website: www.tzmeducation.org regarding the link between educational and societal structure and how we will need a radical change in both if we are to start to see a shift in our overall cultural values towards the adoption of a sustainable socio-economic system.
Apr 08, 2015 Host: Peter Joseph
TZM Global Ep. 170 with Peter Joseph, Ep 170 April 8th 2015, Zeitgeist Day 2015Lectures, Cont.
Featured talks: Brandon Kristy / Eva Omori, ZDay 2015, Berlin Germany
Apr 01, 2015 Host: Peter Joseph
TZM Global Ep. 169 with Peter Joseph, April 1st 2015
Featured ZDay Berlin 2015 talks:
1) Lee Camp
2) Jim Phillips
James Phillips, United Kingdom James Phillips is the co-coordinator of TZM Education: A global initiative to enable TZM members to go into educational institutions and deliver the movement’s train of thought to the next generation. He is a regular host of the movement’s global radio show and a regular speaker at several events in the UK pertaining to sustainability and societal structure for both TZM and 3rd party organizations. He also helps to co-ordinate the London chapter of the movement in the UK and goes into Schools on a regular basis to talk to the younger generations about various topics ranging from human behaviour to sustainable technology. Presentation: TZM Education: Launchpad Sustainability Regarding a strategic and effective approach to activism. What works, what doesn’t and what even counts as a metric when trying to measure such a thing. I will be elucidating why much of what we currently do as a movement could potentially be nowhere near as effective as what could be achieved by going into Schools and talking to kids in a joint and strategic effort. Lee Camp, United States*
Lee Camp is the head writer and host of the weekly comedy news show ‘Redacted Tonight with Lee Camp’ on RT America. He’s a former contributor to The Onion, former staff humor writer for the Huffington Post, and his web series “Moment of Clarity” has been viewed by millions. He’s toured the country and the world with his fierce brand of political stand-up comedy, and George Carlin’s daughter Kelly said he’s one of the few comics keeping her father’s torch lit. His TV show and podcast can be found at LeeCamp.net, as can his comedy albums and books.
Mar 25, 2015 Host: Peter Joseph
LIKE The Zeitgeist Movement @ https://www.facebook.com/tzmglobal FOLLOW The Zeitgeist Movement @ https://twitter.com/tzmglobal JOIN THE MAILING LIST: http://www.thezeitgeistmovement.com/
Peter Joseph plays audio from Zeitgeist Day 2015, Berlin Germany. Ben McLeish: "The Zeitgeist WorldView" Peter Joseph: "Origins and Adaptations P3"
Conventional wisdom would have you believe that most people enter adolescence with a head full of high-minded ideals and a willingness to shake up the system. As they get older, however, they gradually begin to accept the status quo. For me, that process is reversed.
The older I get, the more skeptical I become of our current social model. Why?
Let’s start with this:
It should be of increasing concern to all Americans that there is an extreme disconnect between what Americans believe about man-made climate change, and what science tells us about it. That is to say, despite there being a clear scientific consensus, man-made climate change is more often than not framed as an ambiguous concept in the U.S. mainstream media. Consequently, climate change is generally thought to be far more esoteric than it actually is.
INTRODUCTION AND DISCLAIMER 
The purpose of this project is to enable supporters of a natural law resource based economic model (NLRBE) to understand and appreciate the need to approach the education system in an effort to initiate the value shift required for a more peaceful and sustainable future to emerge.
Today I was reading The Zeitgeist Movement Defined: Realizing a New Train of Thought, again. I did so because I feel the need to express certain frustration on this/my social movement but haven’t found the right words. Also I didn’t want to make any false assumptions on its architecture, so I went straight to the source with a pen in my hand.
I went through the 9 pages that constitute the overview and extracted some notes I would like to post in here:
We need more films about the social, ecological and economic change!
We want to make one and you could help us.
In our Documentary "The Taste of Life" we want to show, that there are people in the whole world, already practicing this change in a great way.
From social symptom to root causes came about as a bi-product of ZDAY 2013 in London, in which all but the introductory talk featured exterior organisations and speakers. Each of whom seek to address a particular social or environmental issue closely aligned with the movement’s materials.
From social symptom to root causes came about as a bi-product of ZDAY 2013 in London, in which all but the introductory talk featured exterior organisations and speakers. Each of whom seek to address a particular social or environmental issue closely aligned with the movement’s materials.
Transcript below. Can also be viewed via PDF HERE.
Welcome to: “3 Questions - What do you propose?” This thought exercise is intended for both the average person, concerned about global problems – along with those who are still confused about - or perhaps even in opposition to The Zeitgeist Movement.
Peter Joseph, ZDay 2016 "Where we go from here" March 26th, Athens Greece [ The Zeitgeist Movement ]
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: http://www.wired.com/2016/04/openai-elon-musk-sam-altman-plan-to-set-artificial-intelligence-free/ ">Inside OpenAI, Elon Musk’s Wild Plan to Set Artificial Intelligence Free
Cade Metz | WIRED
"In the rarefied world of AI research, the brightest minds aren’t driven by—or at least not only by—the next product cycle or profit margin. They want to make AI better, and making AI better doesn’t happen when you keep your latest findings to yourself."
ROBOTICS: http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2016/04/a_robotics_law_expert_on_paolo_bacigalupi_s_mika_model.html ">When a Robot Kills, Is It Murder or Product Liability?
Ryan Calo | Slate
"There is a fundamental similarity between the question of whether a robot can be responsible and the question of whether a robot should enjoy rights...We wouldn’t say of a driverless car that it possesses a responsibility to keep its passengers safe, only that it is designed to do so. But somehow, we feel comfortable saying that a driverless car is responsible for an accident."
COMPUTING: http://motherboard.vice.com/read/computers-might-just-see-like-humans-after-all-vision-deep-learning-neural-networks ">Computers Might Just 'See' Like Humans After All
Jordan Pearson | Motherboard
"Machines and humans experience greater difficulty recognizing the same kinds of images—when objects were rotated in three dimensions, for example—suggesting that deep learning networks actually follow similar 'internal mechanisms' to human vision. Knowing this, the team hopes that we can take lessons from the brain’s visual processes and use them to make computer vision better."
DRONES: http://spectrum.ieee.org/view-from-the-valley/robotics/drones/camera-drone-could-be-a-robot-command-center ">Zero Zero's Camera Drone Could Be a Robot Command Center in the Future
Tekla S. Perry | IEEE Spectrum
"'When I want it to follow me around, it is using facial and body recognition to follow me and make sure I’m in the frame. It can follow anybody I choose. In the final version, though not just yet, it will do a 360 scan around itself and pull out all the faces, they pop up on my phone, then I can choose which person to follow automatically.'"
HEALTH: https://aeon.co/opinions/do-human-bodies-carry-more-toxins-now-than-50-years-ago ">Do human bodies carry more toxins now than 50 years ago?
Matt Limmer | AEON
"By some measures, more than 99 per cent of human exposure to toxins result from natural toxins, and the toxic body-burden presented by these natural toxins is unlikely to have significantly changed in modern times. The presence of such natural toxins, moreover, should not be frightening. As living organisms, we’ve evolved strategies, such as the liver, to mitigate many of these natural invaders, strategies that can be used in the defence against human-made toxins, too."
SOCIAL MEDIA: http://www.fastcompany.com/3059269/how-social-media-is-quietly-yet-radically-changing-how-we-buy-stuff ">How Social Media Is Quietly (Yet Radically) Changing The Way We Buy Stuff
Ryan Holmes | Fast Company
"While we've been busy watching cat videos, social platforms have quietly turned nearly every aspect of customer experience on its head. The way people learn about products, evaluate them, buy them, and interact with companies are being mediated today by social media."
Image courtesy of Shutterstock
Apple’s dismal earnings announcement shows why it badly needs to rethink its innovation model and leadership. Its last breakthrough innovation was the iPhone — which was released in 2007. Since then, Apple has simply been tweaking its componentry, adding faster processors and more advanced sensors, and playing with its size — making it bigger in the iPad and smaller in the Apple Watch. Chief executive Tim Cook is probably one of the most competent operations executives in the industry but is clearly not a technology visionary. Apple needs another Steve Jobs to reinvent itself otherwise it will join the ranks of HP and Compaq.
That Steve Jobs may be Elon Musk—who has proven to be the greatest visionary of our times.
In the same period that Apple released the iPhone and successors, Musk developed two generations of world-changing electric vehicles; perfected a new generation of battery technologies; and released first-generation autonomous driving capabilities. And that was in Tesla Motors. In his other company, SpaceX, Musk developed a spacecraft; docked it with the International Space Station and returned with cargo. He’s launched two rockets to space that have made vertical landings back on Earth — one on a helicopter-like pad and another on a ship in the ocean.
Musk is also developing the Hyperloop, a high-speed transportation system in which pressurized capsules ride on an air cushion driven by linear induction motors and air compressors. In discussions that I had with him in 2012, Musk told me that his ambition was to build a space station and retire on Mars. He wasn’t joking, I expect he will do this.
Apple has reportedly been developing an electric vehicle because it sees a car as an iPhone on wheels. It is conceivable that it will demonstrate something like this in the next five to 10 years. But Tesla already has this technology — and it is amazing. I have likened my Tesla Model S to a spaceship that travels on land. I consider it to be better than any Apple product — because it is more complex, elegant, and better designed than anything that Apple offers.
Would Musk be interested in being part of Apple when Tesla is on top of the world? Tesla just received nearly $20 billion in orders for its Model 3 — a record for any product in history. Musk reportedly turned down an acquisition offer from Google in 2013 when it was on the verge of bankruptcy. Why would he consider such an offer now, from Apple?
My guess is that he would do this — if he were offered the chief executive role. A combination of an operations executive such as Cook and a visionary such as Musk would be formidable. Apple’s vast resources would allow Tesla to scale up his operations to deliver the nearly 400,000 orders it has received for the Model 3. Tesla would be able to leverage Apple’s global distribution network and incorporate many new technologies. Musk would be able to pursue his dream projects while Cook worried about delivery and detail.
And Cook would get the visionary that Apple badly needs, someone who is even a cut above Steve Jobs. The markets would rejoice and take Apple stock to a level higher than anything it has seen before. Consider that Tesla’s market cap of $33 billion is eminently affordable by Apple, which has reserves of more than $200 billion. And Apple lost $47 billion in valuation with its earnings announcement Tuesday, which is more than it would likely cost to acquire Tesla.
This could be a marriage made in heaven. We would get world changing innovations as well as our space colonies.
Image credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/26200187902/ ">Steve Jurvetson/FlickrCC
Did you know there is a 25% chance your cause of death will be due to environmental pollution?
According the http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2016/deaths-attributable-to-unhealthy-environments/en/ ">World Health Organization, some 12.6 million people—or nearly 1 in 4 worldwide—died in 2012 due to living or working in unhealthy conditions. In addition, environmental degradation seriously affects overall quality of life and the balance of Earth’s ecosystems through loss of forests, open spaces, marine environments and biodiversity.
While technological growth and industrialization historically contributed to such problems, the latest technologies—from robotics to artificial intelligence to biotechnology—will also help create healthier and greener industries benefiting both people and planet.
Here are a few examples.
A More Efficient Transportation System
While affordable electric and hybrid cars will help reduce pollution and use of fossil fuels, self-driving cars will make https://www.greenbiz.com/article/are-self-driving-cars-good-thing-environment ">our whole transportation and logistics systems more efficient.
Cars, trucks, ships, drones and jets that drive or pilot themselves and wirelessly communicate with each other can coordinate and optimize delivery of people and goods in ways requiring less energy.
Depending how the system rolls out, at the least, individual car owners could see https://www.greenbiz.com/article/are-self-driving-cars-good-thing-environment ">15% fuel savings simply through more efficient driving habits. Car sharing (resulting in less cars overall), the platooning of delivery trucks, and integrated transport networks (where cars no longer need stop signs or stop lights) may lead to even more dramatic savings.
This self-driving future is coming fast. http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/03/beep-beep/473142/ ">Eleven companies are now testing self-driving cars in just California. New self-driving car initiatives are launching http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/04/technology/chinas-companies-poised-to-take-leap-in-developing-a-driverless-car.html?_r=0 ">in heavily polluting countries like China, several convoys of self-driving trucks recently completed a 1,000 mile http://www.popularmechanics.com/cars/trucks/a20310/european-platooning-challenge-self-driving-trucks-1000-miles/ ">platooning drive across Europe.
Eventually systems like these will also include drones, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-02-25/rolls-royce-drone-ships-challenge-375-billion-industry-freight ">cargo ships, and smaller delivery vehicles.
The Next Agricultural Revolution?
In addition to transportation, exponential technologies can also green the world’s agricultural industry, another big polluter that is also responsible for loss of forests and biodiversity.
Japan is opening a series of robotic vegetable farms, http://singularityhub.com/2016/02/03/japans-all-robot-indoor-farm-to-harvest-first-crop-next-year/ ">including Spread, which will harvest up to http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/feb/01/japanese-firm-to-open-worlds-first-robot-run-farm ">50,000 lettuce heads per day. By using LED lights and operating in self-contained environments robotic farms like Spread can reduce energy use 30%, reduce water use 98% (through recycling), and do not require chemicals and pesticides.
By planting on shelves and stacking them vertically, these farms also reduce land use, allowing island nations like Japan to become more self-sufficient in their food production and other nations to use their land more wisely.
In addition to vegetables, biotechnology is producing environmentally friendly http://singularityhub.com/2013/08/05/panel-tastes-synthetic-lab-grown-burger-backed-by-sergey-brin/ ">lab-grown meats. Lab-grown meats use stem cells and bioreactors to grow meat rather than raising and killing animals. Animals in the meat industry are estimated http://www.wsj.com/articles/sizzling-steaks-may-soon-be-lab-grown-1454302862 ">to consume 30% of the world’s grain, 25% of land use,and are major contributors to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_impact_of_meat_production ">pollution.
While these technologies offer hope for a greener future and greener industries in the next decade, it will still be a few years before they are operating at scale around the world.
AI- and Sensor-Enabled Monitoring, Prediction, and Response
In the meantime, exponential technologies are also addressing more immediate problems.
IBM recently rolled out https://www.technologyreview.com/s/540806/how-artificial-intelligence-can-fight-air-pollution-in-china/ ">an artificial intelligence platform to predict, monitor, and manage air pollution in China, and https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/airvisual-node-the-world-s-smartest-air-monitor#/ ">early stage innovators are looking for ways to allow individuals and families to use artificial intelligence to monitor air pollution in the home.
Researchers are developing http://www.innovationtoronto.com/2016/01/intelligent-sensor-system-to-map-the-presence-of-pollutants-in-the-ocean/ ">intelligent sensor networks and http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-18062235 ">robotic fish to find and identify sea pollution early on. In the past, researchers were only able to test water at most once a month. These real-time sensors allow fast detection and management of spills before they spread.
Innovators in wildlife conservation are also testing http://wildtech.mongabay.com/2016/04/undercover-robots-mission-stop-poaching/ ">robotic animal decoys to prevent and catch poachers, virtual http://wildtech.mongabay.com/2016/02/can-a-virtual-fence-help-protect-birds-from-human-structures/ ">geofences to protect endangered birds from wind turbines, and http://wildtech.mongabay.com/2016/03/watching-for-illegal-fishing-by-keeping-our-eyes-on-the-seas/ ">big data analysis to prevent illegal fishing.
Solving One Problem May Cause Others…
While all of these developments are promising, one of the most challenging aspects of the coming decades will be implementing these technologies in a thoughtful way.
New technological innovations are still largely first taking hold in the developed world. Unfortunately, environmental pollution is now http://www.triplepundit.com/2015/01/report-pollution-leading-cause-death-developing-world/ ">the leading cause of death in the developing world, coming from such sources as indoor cook stoves, second-hand smoke, and waste run-off from factories.
Furthermore, the solution to one problem may create new challenges. As we transition to greener industries, we need to do so in a way that considers moving the billions of people who are dependent on the old industries and economies into new sources of livelihood.
For example, while more automated farms may help solve an environmental challenge, they may also destabilize up to 40% of people in the developing world who are dependent on agriculture for their livelihoods. Similarly, though self-driving technology may increase efficiency, millions of professional drivers may also lose jobs in these industries.
And as we switch from oil to new sources of alternative energy, oil-dependent countries—such as Saudi Arabia, Russia, Venezuela, Libya and Kuwait—will need to begin diversifying their economies or risk serious economic pressures with geopolitical consequences.
Those who study the environment understand how closely human survival is linked to the well-being of our natural ecosystems. But we must also remember that in our deeply connected world the well-being of one community is also dependent on the well-being of other communities, and we’ll need to collaborate now to ensure the future works for everyone.
This post explores how to run great experiments in your company, based on recent conversations with my friend Astro Teller, Chief of Moonshots at "X" (formally Google X, Google's R&D factory).
X's mission is to invent and launch "moonshot" technologies that could make the world a radically better place…dare I say, help create a world of Abundance.
Astro leads a team of brilliant engineers, scientists and creatives developing solutions to dozens (perhaps hundreds) of the world's toughest problems. Some of their publicly known projects include: the self-driving cars, the smart contact lens, high-altitude wind-power generation, and Project Loon, just to name a small fraction.
All of these projects started as a series of experiments.
Today’s most successful companies, the ones that are “crushing it,” started as a series of crazy ideas, followed by experiments to test just how viable those ideas might be.
Experimentation is a crucial mechanism for driving breakthroughs in any organization.
By the way, you may also want to check out Astro’s 2016 TED talk which was just released.
What Are Experiments and Why Do They Matter?
Experiments help you test a hypothesis about your product or service and help you find answers to your most difficult questions.
Good questions are questions that, if answered, fundamentally change (and improve) the way you operate.
Understanding how to focus your team on asking good questions and turning good questions into experiments is critical.
So what makes a good experiment?
The Three Principles of a Good Experiment
Astro explains that the following three principles describe a good experiment:
Principle 1: Any experiment where you already know the outcome is a BAD experiment.
Principle 2: Any experiment when the outcome will not change what you are doing is also a BAD experiment.
Principle 3: Everything else (especially where the input and output is quantifiable (i.e., measurable)) is a GOOD experiment.
Seems simple enough, right?
You need to be asking questions to which you don’t know the answer but such that if you did know the answer, you’d change the way you operate.
If you already know the answer, or if you are testing an insignificant detail that doesn’t matter, you’ll just be wasting time and money.
How to Ask Good Questions and Design Good Experiments
In any organization, you get what you incentivize.
In order to get good questions/experiments, you have to create a culture that incentivizes asking good questions and designing good experiments.
Astro describes a very unique approach to doing just this:
“At X, we set up a 'Get Weirder Award.' The whole point of the Get Weirder Award was to focus the team on experiments and to drive home why they needed to think in terms of experiments.”
Teams would be challenged to ask “weird” questions — to put forth crazy ideas around framing problems differently and to design experiments that really push the limits.
Critically, Astro gives out the Get Weirder Award before the experiments are run.
“If you give out the award before you've run the experiment, then people start to really feel that you don't actually care about the outcome. You care about the quality of the question. So every two weeks, we would give out an award for the best experiment.”
Doing so constantly (and viscerally) reinforced the behavior of asking good questions — and as such, at X, they’ve built a culture around celebrating the questions themselves.
How to Manage Experiments
Once you’ve designed a good experiment and assembled an intellectually diverse team to tackle it, what are the best management principles to keep from screwing it up?
Management Principle 1: Don’t Be a Bottleneck!
As a CEO or manager, it is critically important that you don’t get in your team’s way by micromanaging them or by demanding to be the sole decision maker.
If you need all of the information, all of the time, your team will never get their work done.
Astro explains, “Your job as a manager is to give your team your recommendations and empower them to do whatever they think is right. Allow them to learn.”
He continues, “I work super hard for me not to be the bottleneck at anything that goes on here. Ironically, that's a full-time job.”
One funny story involved two employees who had a major strategic conflict. They wanted Astro to make a decision as to which one was right.
Rather than do so, he said, "I believe I already know which of you is right and which of you is wrong. I can just make that decision right now, but I'm not going to. The problem is: If I tell the two of you who's right and who's wrong, in my opinion, the next time you have conflict, you will come back and ask me to do it again, and that does not scale. I will spend however as much time it takes to either train the two of you to work well together or figure out that you can't.”
Not being a bottleneck means deliberately letting your team learn. Sometimes it’s hard to do, but it’s a necessary step if you want to derive the most value from your experiments.
Management Principle 2: The Value of Secrecy
In a previous blog, I mentioned the notion that ambitious entrepreneurs (and companies) need to get comfortable with being misunderstood.
Interestingly, experiments are one of the most publicly misunderstood domains within a company.
We talked in great depth in the last blog about why you have to focus on killing your ideas — in line with that discussion, an experiment that proves an idea won’t work is as successful of an experiment as proving that one will work!
The problem is: the public (and especially the press) doesn’t understand this.
They see “failed experiments” and think, “failed company” — which adds enormous pressure and stress to your employees and investors.
Thus, it can be useful to keep your experiments secret.
Astro explains, “The main value of secrecy is not 'to hide our awesome ideas', it’s to make it easier to kill ideas. Secrecy offers air cover. It allows the team to have the emotional space to solve the problems without outside pressure.”
Management Principle 3: Don’t Worry about Success — Worry about Progress & Learning
Finally, if you are worrying about success, you are going to be paying attention to all of the wrong indicators and misguiding your team.
You need to focus on progress and learning — and success will follow.
Rather than creating a culture that only celebrates big wins, create one that celebrates progress on tough projects and running good experiments.
You’ll be amazed by the difference in your organization with such a small mindset and cultural shift.
Image credit: http://www.shutterstock.com ">Shutterstock.com
As much as the headlines proclaim “virtual reality is here,” it has also only just arrived.
Samsung Gear VR was released in November; this month is the initial launch of the HTC Vive and Oculus Rift; and Playstation VR is just a couple months out.
The initial release has not been without its http://www.eurogamer.net/articles/2016-04-04-vive-and-oculus-experience-early-processing-hiccups ">hiccups, but VR is most certainly here to stay.
In the coming years, big moves from the likes of Google, Facebook, and possibly even Apple will cement the fate of VR for years to come. While we have the best, most affordable consumer VR technology ever today, there are undoubtedly opportunities that have yet to be fully actualized and will be even greater than what we’ve seen up to this point.
In February, as a part of our http://greenlightvr.com/reports/2016-industry-report ">2016 Virtual Reality Industry Report, Greenlight VR conducted an online survey with VR developers and studios to understand their own expectations for the industry and their opportunities within it.
Here are three of the many takeaways from our research.
Multiple Use Cases and Verticals Are Being Developed Beyond Gaming
As expected, gaming dominates the sample’s current focus, but there is a surprising diversity of applications, content, and experiences being developed. These reported professional and enterprise verticals ranged from education, travel, corporate training, healthcare, and even financial services. If this data proves to reflect the industry at large, we should expect to see a significantly diverse landscape in the coming years.
http://i2.wp.com/singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Use-Case-Table-for-SUArticle-1.jpg?resize=622%2C321 " alt="Use Case Table for SUArticle (1)" data-recalc-dims="1" />
This is promising for an industry that is currently characterized as gaming-centric. Gamers will pave the way, but we think the larger market opportunity lies in the summation of multiple, highly-specialized use cases for which VR offers a compelling proposition.
Business Model Experimentation Is Underway
Although profitability is expected, a near majority of the sample is still figuring out key aspects of a revenue model. For instance, 41% report they plan a mixed revenue model, which could include direct-consumer pricing or sponsorship support.
http://i1.wp.com/singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/greenlight-developers-survey-1.png?resize=975%2C455 " alt="greenlight-developers-survey-1" data-recalc-dims="1" />
We expect developers will respond to what consumers are most willing to buy as the market matures and a sizable consumer base forms. For gaming, this could look like micro-transactions and standalone purchases. For non-gaming, it could resemble subscription services, pay-per-view, or a contract model.
Developers Have High Hopes for 2016
Based on our sample*, independent developers overwhelmingly believe (76%) that their companies will make a profit in 2016. Considering how lean some early market leaders can be, it is not inconceivable that some will find sustainable profits. However, we believe the data reflect a community that is still aspirational rather than indicative of the overall market in 2016.
http://i1.wp.com/singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/greenlight-developers-survey-2.png?resize=846%2C515 " alt="greenlight-developers-survey-2" data-recalc-dims="1" />As we’ve discussed with industry leaders over the years, we’ve noticed this aspiration can prove to be well founded, but with the caveat that VR will require many more years, iterations, and development breakthroughs before HMDs are as ubiquitous as smartphones.
We believe the latter to be true, but the expectations of profits to be optimistic. 2016 could quite possibly be the year VR has to survive rather than the tipping point.
Although Robust Growth Is Expected, the Ecosystem Is Still Fragile
As we continue to monitor and analyze the industry, the one thing that appears certain today is that new market opportunity is still under development.
The rapidly growing community of developers is experimenting. However, they are not alone.
We are all learning, researching, and creating in an effort to advance the medium together toward a sustainable future. Although this nascent industry is burgeoning, there is still quite a bit of ground to cover before mainstream appeal truly sets in. Most certainly we will see both dramatic leaps and stumbles as the industry and related technologies develop.
*Research conducted in February, 2016 utilizing a respondent base of executives solicited directly by Greenlight VR from opt-in lists of companies already in correspondence. All respondents reported they were involved in a decision making capacity at their respective companies (a requirement for survey participation). Of the 90 initiated surveys, 52 were completed from self-identified “independent” developers. These findings present the opinions of 52 “developers.”
Due to the small sample size of the survey, the findings are not statistically significant and should not be taken as representative of the independent developer community. However, based on ongoing interaction with the developer community (including industry conferences, analyst briefings, consulting) we believe these findings are likely to be representative.
Banner image credit: http://www.shutterstock.com ">Shutterstock.com
On April 12th, 1961 Yuri Gagarin launched into space on a Vostok rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, becoming the first person ever to leave the planet.
Here’s the crazy thing: today’s astronauts travel to space on a nearly identical rocket, the Soyuz, which went into operation only five years after Gagarin’s historic flight.
Why? While we’ve seen innovations in rockets over the last half-century, the underlying physics of how we get people and things into space has not changed. Chemical propulsion technology is still at the heart of all rockets. It’s what makes rocket science, rocket science.
Getting to space is hard. Just 2% of a rocket is the thing we want in space, the other 98% is the “rocket-stuff” that accelerates the payload and gets it out of Earth’s powerful gravity well.
For a long time, the paradigm of launching big expensive rockets worked well enough because very few things actually needed to get launched into space, and the things that we launched were big and expensive themselves. So the space industry could afford the long lead cycles and absorb the high barriers to entry.
But all that has begun to change over the past several years as new satellite capabilities have emerged and new players have entered the space arena. The industry now has startup companies in Silicon Valley launching more satellites to space than traditional satellite markets.
For the history of space exploration, we have been trying to make rockets bigger, better, faster, cheaper, and reusable to beat the supply chain problem. There is another way to approach this problem, however. What if we didn't need to launch anything at all?
Manufacturing satellites is a huge business. Annually, it’s a $15 billion market. Currently, the only option for getting these expensive, complex systems into orbit is to launch them on a rocket.
http://www.madeinspace.us/ " target="_blank">Made In Space, Inc. is approaching this market in a different way that doesn’t involve the traditional hurdles of the current supply chain to space. Over the past six years, the team has been putting together the technological building blocks to make manufacturing of satellites in space possible.
Today, Made In Space is taking the first steps towards manufacturing satellites in space by using the company’s 3D printer on the International Space Station to make small customized satellites (called CubeSats) on-demand.
Through a program called “https://3dprint.com/88514/made-in-space-and-nanoracks-sign-deal-to-build-and-deploy-cubesats-in-orbit/ " target="_blank">Stash and Deploy” a stockpile of satellite components that cannot yet be 3D printed will be stored on the ISS.
As a satellite is needed, specific components will be assembled with 3D printed structural components. The end product? A custom on-demand satellite assembled in space and deployed into orbit.
http://xmanu.co/april27 ">http://i0.wp.com/singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/XManSummit_750x100Banner_slower_discount-1.gif?resize=750%2C100 " alt="XManSummit_750x100Banner_slower_discount (1)" data-recalc-dims="1" />
A future stage of stash and deploy will be the robotic manufacturing and assembly of entire satellite systems in space. Recently, http://singularityhub.com/2016/03/02/archinaut-a-3d-printing-robot-to-make-big-structures-in-space/ " target="_blank">NASA funded Made In Space’s Archinaut Program which will begin the development of a set of capabilities to enable large-scale spacecraft, satellites, and space assets to be manufactured in space.
Making satellites in space unlocks fundamentally new design possibilities. Today’s satellites are designed for launch, but when they are manufactured in space, we will be able to let the conditions of space alone drive the design of our satellites.
What Could We Do If We Didn’t Need to Launch?
Imagine for a moment a large space structure, like an antenna, that will never see any environment other than the microgravity of space—it could be incredibly sparse and wispy.
Now, imagine a satellite that never had to be constrained within the cylindrical diameter of a rocket body or survive the loads of launch—it could be perfectly optimized for its mission, maybe being as thin as a sheet of paper to absorb and radiate solar radiation more evenly.
Satellites and space structures like these have never existed because they couldn’t be launched. More importantly, today’s space assets can be drastically improved when the satellite is manufactured in space.
Remote sensing satellites can be made over a hundred meters long to enable synthetic aperture radar that collects new information on our changing planet. Satellites depending on reliable communications, such as GPS and telecommunications, can be made more capable with larger, more customized antennas. A large space-based phased array antenna platform can address new communication markets, such as connecting the world to global broadband from space.
Just as we will build large antennas for satellite communications, we can also build very large space telescopes for observing the universe. Radio telescopes with apertures larger than the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico could be positioned in space for more optimal observations.
In addition, satellites will one day be made far larger than today’s satellites. There will be unique applications for satellites that are miles in length. The traditional term for such objects is megastructures—but none have existed in space yet. That said, space is the optimal place for megastructures. It's easy to support the weight of a mile long satellite when it is weightless!
Much of a satellite’s mass goes to its structure, allowing it to be built and tested on Earth and launched on a rocket. Soon, when we only have to launch the raw materials to build satellites in space, that mass will go much further because the structural components of the final satellite will never need to experience gravity or the large force loads of rocket launch. And one day, we may start using the resources of space for construction and thus removing the need to launch anything from Earth at all.
Space is a wonderful place for industrial activity for other reasons too.
Unfiltered solar energy can drive even the most power hungry manufacturing methods. Weightlessness allows huge objects to be manipulated with the bump of an actuator. We even have unlimited, clean vacuum for manufacturing without oxidation or corrosion.
And beyond specific applications, the whole process can be more efficient—3D printing the satellite components themselves in space enables a faster, more responsive ability to deploy a new satellite.
Why All of This Is Important
We may not always recognize it, but satellites provide value to us everyday. Our “birds” in the sky do everything from remote sensing of weather patterns and crop yields, to GPS and telecommunications connecting the people of the world. Satellite-based telescopes, like Hubble and Kepler, are even helping us understand some of the age-old questions of the universe.
In every one of the examples described above, the satellite and the satellite systems that are manufactured in space are far more optimized for their operating environment than any satellite currently in space today.
We have come a long way since Gagarin’s first spaceflight thanks to our daring efforts to reach further and further into the cosmos. Looking back on human history, we recognize key moments of creation: The creation of fire, the first tools, industrial processes, the internet.
We have now entered a moment in our shared timeline in which humanity can create things not just on Earth, but off Earth as well. Making satellites in space will change the way all satellites are operated in the future. But if we are truly successful, satellites will be just the first in a long line of new products and industry made in space.
Interested in learning more about the future of manufacturing? Join Jason Dunn and other leading manufacturing experts at Singularity University’s inaugural http://xmanu.co/footerapril27 " target="_blank">Exponential Manufacturing Conference May 10-11, 2016 in Boston.
Image credit: http://www.shutterstock.com ">Shutterstock.com; http://www.madeinspace.us/nasa-selects-made-in-space-proposal-for-next-generation-space-manufacturing-program/ ">Made In Space
The http://www.nature.com/news/first-paralysed-person-to-be-reanimated-offers-neuroscience-insights-1.19749 ">recent announcement that a young paralysed man in Ohio in the US named Ian Burkhart managed to regain the use of his fingers after having a chip implanted in his brain is an exciting step forward for science and healthcare. In fact, you may now be wondering how long it will be before we can unlock a door, turn on a kettle, or even send an email simply by thinking about it?
The Ohio breakthrough used a technique called http://www.ndcn.ox.ac.uk/divisions/fmrib/what-is-fmri/introduction-to-fmri ">functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the pattern of electrical impulses in the part of the brain that controls movement — the motor cortex — that was generated when Burkhart thought about using his fingers. The system learned to recognize this pattern when it appeared in his brain, and then instruct receivers to stimulate his arm muscles to make the appropriate movements.
This might produce life-changing results for people with disabilities, but it has limited potential outside the body. It is about sending movement instructions to parts of the body that cannot be reached in the usual way. We might be able to use it to make a robot reproduce our movements, but that may be the limit.
Having said that, we have already discovered ways of manipulating foreign objects. Three years ago, I demonstrated a modified Scalextric set at the Lancashire Science Festival that enabled people to make the cars go faster round the track simply by concentrating harder on them. Hundreds of people were able to try this using a Bluetooth headset called the http://store.neurosky.com ">Neurosky Mindwave, connected to nothing more than a laptop and a simple microcontroller.
The technology behind this shift from the telekinesis of sci-fi movies or comic books into the real world is electroencephalography, or EEG. This monitors the brain’s electrical activity using electrodes placed on the scalp. The data is then processed to see the underlying frequencies in these impulses, which are associated with different kinds of brain activities. The alpha frequency band is associated with wakeful relaxation with closed eyes, for example, while the beta frequency is associated with normal waking consciousness.
The headsets in my demonstration transmitted this information to the laptop, which used algorithms that recognize concentration as a combination of different impulses: increasing on several frequencies while falling on several other frequencies at the same time. When it detected this, it instructed the microcontroller to increase the amount of power going to the Scalextric. There is an art to making the system work well: sometimes people find the cars going faster even though they didn’t think they were concentrating. I found I made the cars go faster by doing the alphabet in my head; and could slow them down by looking at a blank wall. Everyone is a bit different.
There are now commercial toys available that use the same technology. One example is the Star Wars Force Trainer, where EEG — not Jedi power — enables users to elevate a ping-pong ball using just their mind.
There are also serious potential applications. To try to make computer programs easier to use, for example, researchers http://shura.shu.ac.uk/10802/ ">have studied EEGs to discern the amount of cognitive effort someone expends on different elements of a program. I have http://mac.sagepub.com/content/47/6/185.short ">studied the brain activity of experienced archers and found a difference in impulses between “good” and “bad” shots. This might enable coaches to tell players when they are in the right mindset, while players might be able to train their minds to achieve better results.
The Trouble With Thoughts
These are promising developments, but they are all looking more at the “global” activity of the brain rather than someone’s thoughts. There is a very big difference. For instance, researchers have built an EEG-powered electric wheelchair, but it runs into problems when a hazard appears. The user is prone to start concentrating on the hazard, and because the system can’t tell one kind of concentration from another, the wheelchair keeps moving and the person could end up in danger. To get around this problem, researchers added a secondary control system that allows the user to touch a pad to allow the wheelchair to move and touch it again to disable it — with moderately successful results.
The brain is a very complex organ with multiple areas responsible for many different kinds of activity. It is a major challenge to unpick everything and isolate “thoughts” from the data. The limit of current technology is to attach numerous electrodes to the scalp and measure the activity in different areas of the brain at the same time. Because different areas govern different actions, this makes it possible to use algorithms to detect whether a person is thinking of, say, moving their left or right arm. This might allow a slightly more sophisticated means of brain-powered wheelchair control, for instance. But while this is starting to get closer to thought control, it is still rather global and has to be tailored to the individual subject since the exact patterns of brain activity vary from person to person.
In future, we may well gain a greater understanding of the structure and function of the brain. Together with more sensitive electrodes and more computer processing power, this might make it possible to further develop this brain-to-computer interface into a more accurate system that can adjust to the variations between one person and the next. This might make it easier for someone who would otherwise be paralysed to control a device or communicate.
Even then, that would still be quite a way from true “thought” control. It is already possible to switch on a kettle through concentration using EEG technology, but we are still some way from being able to think a range of different instructions to different objects attached to a single system. As for sending emails, it looks like we will be typing for some time to come.
http://theconversation.com/profiles/stephen-sigurnjak-257774 ">Stephen Sigurnjak, Senior Lecturer in Electronics, http://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-central-lancashire ">University of Central Lancashire
This article was originally published on http://theconversation.com ">The Conversation. Read the https://theconversation.com/how-the-power-to-control-objects-with-our-minds-stopped-being-science-fiction-58297 ">original article.
Banner image credit: http://www.shutterstock.com ">Shutterstock.com
To celebrate the Hubble Space Telescope’s 26th anniversary in space, http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2016/13/ ">NASA released a series of images, videos, and simulations of an object known as the Bubble Nebula. In the main image, a giant star is blowing a cosmic hurricane into space, forming a brilliant halo as it smacks into the chill molecular cloud surrounding its parent star.
Like all Hubble images, the immediate aesthetic appeal of this snapshot is only enhanced when we take a moment to http://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2016/hubble-sees-a-star-inflating-a-giant-bubble ">consider its scale. The Bubble Nebula is 7 light years across and 7,100 light years from Earth. The star at its center is 45 times more massive than our sun and blows out heated gas in a “stellar wind” traveling four million miles an hour.
http://i1.wp.com/singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/hubble-anniversary-image-1.jpg?resize=1200%2C1140 " alt="hubble-anniversary-image-1" data-recalc-dims="1" />
While the image itself is spectacular, it got me thinking big picture. Hubble has taken images like this with such regularity for so long they’ve become something of an expected miracle. We marvel at them on a quick click, but it’s all too easy to forget why they’re so marvelous.
It’s a theme I think about often when writing on technology.
Television, computers, WiFi, the internet, cars, planes, electricity—all our best loved tools assume this miraculously mundane quality once they’ve settled into a routine of delivering on their promise consistently and without complaint. They fade into the background to form the fabric of our technological experience. Why? Because the vast majority of the time they work too damn well for the underlying technology to be noticeable.
I recently read an article observing that smartphone improvements are now so incremental they’re boring. It’s true. But let me rephrase it slightly: Smartphones have been perfected to the point new improvements are unremarkable. Sure, we’re ready for the next smartphone moment, but it’s also nice to reflect on how we've arrived at this point.
Writing about exciting technology means covering stuff that doesn’t work very well yet. It involves envisioning tech's potential and soothsaying (often wrongly) about the amazing world we’ll live in one day. But we should celebrate boring technologies too because the sparkly world of tomorrow won’t seem so amazing when we get there without context.
Smartphones, of course, really are miraculous. If you exploded one into its constituent parts in slow motion, Matrix-like, and told the story of each component, it would involve years, probably decades, of brain-breaking labor by teams of researchers and scientists. Every part was bigger, slower, and/or more complex. Today? Boring. Such a beautiful thing.
Hubble is like that. And it isn’t.
It's true Hubble also represents decades of brain-breaking labor, took 12 years to go from funding to launch, and didn’t work at first. Its real anniversary may actually be three years after it arrived in orbit when an epic repair mission fixed its main mirror. And like other well-developed technologies, we’ve come to expect the spectacular from it.
But Hubble’s relevance, its ability to dependably induce excitement 26 years on, is perhaps a greater feat than the mundane miracles of smartphones, computers, or other more pragmatic inventions. Hubble speaks to something in us beyond practicality and gratification.
I found myself going back to a http://lareviewofbooks.org/article/golden-eye ">beautifully written article by Ross Andersen on why telescopes like Hubble matter. Andersen charts the evolution of the human eye all the way through its technological extension into the cosmos. He says telescopes like Hubble reduce the sun and Milky Way to mere pixels. They stretch our vision not just into space but over unseen wavelengths of light and through incomprehensible expanses of time.
For ages the night sky was a “decorative ceiling—a fixed sphere of glittering stick-figure gods." Now, thanks to our eye-extending technologies we have a far richer, more dimensional view, and we can deepen this sense of dimensionality with computer simulations of sweeping vistas—like this one of the Bubble Nebula.
This may sound a touch melodramatic, but I think it’s one of the few times hyperbole falls short. Hubble provokes the inner poet or philosopher because it so sublimely straddles the aesthetic and the conceptual. It brings abstract theories into our realm of experience.
"Historically, discoveries of pure science are slow to reach the mainstream...Hubble has proved an exception, remaking, in a single generation, the popular conception of the universe,” Andersen writes. “It has accomplished this primarily through the aesthetic force of its discoveries, which distill the difficult abstractions of astrophysics into singular expressions of color and light."
The unaided eye can see the history of Earth in stacked layers of rock on a mountainside; looking through Hubble is the equivalent of this, only for the universe as a whole.
You only need a few sentences and the Hubble Deep Field—a detailed glimpse of a tiny sliver of sky showing thousands of galaxies as they were billions of years ago—to bring the vast distances and time scales of cosmology home to pretty much anyone.
It's no wonder Hubble still compels us to look on in awe after 26 years.
Image credit: http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/gallery/images/shuttle/sts-125/html/s125e011810.html ">NASA; http://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2016/hubble-sees-a-star-inflating-a-giant-bubble ">NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), F. Summers, G. Bacon, Z. Levay, and L. Frattare (Viz 3D Team, STScI); http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2004/07/image/a/ ">NASA/Hubble Ultra Deep Field
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2016/04/the_philosophical_argument_against_artificial_intelligence_killing_us_all.html ">Let Artificial Intelligence Evolve
Michael Chorost | Slate
"For billions of years, aqueous information systems have had to contend with extremely complex environments...And the biochemistry going on in one cubic millimeter of dirt, or a quarter of a cubic millimeter of mouse brain, is orders of magnitude more complex than anything a computer has to face.
By contrast, computers live in a very simple environment. They take in streams of bits and send out streams of bits...That’s why today’s computers can crush you at Go but not have the slightest awareness that they are doing it. They’re too simple. This tells us why A.I. is no threat."
ROBOTICS: http://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2016/04/want-to-further-muddy-human-robot-interactions-add-in-ethnicity/ ">What happens when robots are assigned ethnicities?http://www.digitaltrends.com/cool-tech/how-do-we-teach-robots-right-from-wrong/ ">
Julianne Tveten | Ars Technica
"Is it possible that prejudices humans harbor against one another don’t translate to their interactions with non-human entities, even when those things resemble humans? Can interactions with robots enlighten people about cultures they don’t know and thus the interactions they have with other humans?"
COMPUTING: http://www.wired.com/2016/04/magic-leap-vr/ ">The Untold Story of Magic Leap, the World’s Most Secretive Startup
Kevin Kelly | WIRED
"The recurring discovery I made in each virtual world I entered was that although every one of these environments was fake, the experiences I had in them were genuine. VR does two important things: One, it generates an intense and convincing sense of what is generally called presence...But the second thing it does is more important. The technology forces you to be present—in a way flatscreens do not—so that you gain authentic experiences, as authentic as in real life."
FUTURE OF WORK: http://techcrunch.com/2016/04/21/the-automation-revolution-and-the-rise-of-the-creative-economy/ ">The automation revolution and the rise of the creative economy
Aidan Cunnifee | TechCrunch
"There are really only two human enterprises: creation and implementation. We design things, come up with interesting strategies and ideas and then we execute them...We build technology to help us on the implementation side (for the most part). We haven’t yet managed to automate our creativity and critical thinking."
COGNITIVE SCIENCE: https://www.quantamagazine.org/20160421-the-evolutionary-argument-against-reality/ ">The Evolutionary Argument Against Reality
Amanda Gefter | Quanta Magazine
"While neuroscientists struggle to understand how there can be such a thing as a first-person reality, quantum physicists have to grapple with the mystery of how there can be anything but a first-person reality. In short, all roads lead back to the observer."
FUTURE OF BUSINESS: https://www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/strategy-technology-digital-integrated-strategy-machine-using-ai-create-advantage/ ">The Integrated Strategy Machine: Using AI to Create Advantage
"We believe that technology-enhanced strategy can be realized only in the context of an integrated strategy machine: a collection of resources—both technological and human—that act in concert to develop and execute business strategy. It comprises a range of conceptual and analytical operations—including problem definition, signal processing, pattern recognition, abstraction and conceptualization, analysis, and prediction—that connect into a seamless whole."
ADVANCED MATERIALS: http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/04/artificial-muscle-can-heal-itself ">Artificial muscle can heal itselfhttp://www.kurzweilai.net/super-stretchy-self-healing-material-could-lead-to-artificial-muscle ">
Tim Wogan | Science Magazine
"Materials that expand and contract in response to an electric field are often used as pressure or strain sensors, sometimes self-correcting ones. Self-healing could be useful when sensors have to be placed in extreme conditions such as in space, where repair is sometimes difficult or impossible"
Image courtesy of Shutterstock
A group of physicists recently built the http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/energy/a20406/single-atom-engine-works/ ">smallest engine ever created from just a single atom. Like any other engine it converts heat energy into movement — but it does so on a smaller scale than ever seen before. The atom is trapped in a cone of electromagnetic energy and lasers are used to heat it up and cool it down, which causes the atom to move back and forth in the cone like an engine piston.
The scientists from the University of Mainz in Germany who are behind the invention don’t have a particular use in mind for the engine. But it’s a good illustration of how we are increasingly able to replicate the everyday machines we rely on at a tiny scale. This is opening the way for some exciting possibilities in the future, particularly in the use of nanorobots https://theconversation.com/nanotechnology-in-medicine-isnt-just-about-size-16054 ">in medicine, that could be sent into the body to release targeted drugs or even https://theconversation.com/new-cancer-hunting-nano-robots-to-seek-and-destroy-tumours-30870 ">fight diseases such as cancer.
https://theconversation.com/five-ways-nanotechnology-is-securing-your-future-55254 ">Nanotechnology deals with ultra-small objects equivalent to one billionth of a meter in size, which sounds an impossibly tiny scale at which to build machines. But size is relative to how close you are to an object. We can’t see things at the nanoscale with the naked eye, just as we can’t see the outer planets of the solar system. Yet if we zoom in — with a telescope for the planets or a powerful electron microscope for nano-objects — then we change the frame of reference and things look very different.
However, even after getting a closer look, we still can’t build machines at the nanoscale using conventional engineering tools. While regular machines, such as the internal combustion engines in most cars, operate according to the rules of physics laid out by Isaac Newton, things at the nanoscale follow the more complex laws of https://theconversation.com/explainer-quantum-physics-570 ">quantum mechanics. So we need different tools that take into account the quantum world in order to manipulate atoms and molecules in a way that uses them as building blocks for nanomachines. Here are four more tiny machines that could have a big impact.
Graphene engine for nanorobots
Researchers from Singapore have recently demonstrated a simple but http://phys.org/news/2014-05-one-nm-thick-graphene-mimics-two-stroke.html ">nano-sized engine made from a highly elastic piece of https://theconversation.com/harder-than-diamond-stronger-than-steel-super-conductor-graphenes-unreal-5123 ">graphene. Graphene is a two-dimensional sheet of carbon atoms that has exceptional mechanical strength. Inserting some chlorine and fluorine molecules into the graphene lattice and firing a laser at it causes the sheet to expand. Rapidly turning the laser on and off makes the graphene pump back and forth like the piston in an internal combustion engine.
The http://phys.org/news/2014-05-one-nm-thick-graphene-mimics-two-stroke.html ">researchers think the graphene nano-engine could be used to power https://theconversation.com/swarms-of-robots-could-fight-cancer-with-your-help-17899 ">tiny robots, for example to attack cancer cells in the body. Or it could be used in a so-called “https://theconversation.com/how-oversized-atoms-could-help-shrink-lab-on-a-chip-devices-43791 ">lab-on-a-chip” — a device that shrinks the functions of a chemistry lab into tiny package that can be used for rapid blood tests, among other things.
The rotors that produce movement in machines such as aircraft engines and fans all usually suffer from friction, which limits their performance. Nanotechnology can be used to create a motor from a single molecule, which can rotate without any friction. Normal rotors interact with the air according to Newton’s laws as they spin round and so experience friction. But, at the nanoscale, molecular rotors follow quantum law, meaning they don’t interact with the air in the same way and so friction doesn’t affect their performance.
Nature has actually already shown us that molecular motors are possible. Certain proteins can travel along a surface using a rotating mechanism that create movement from chemical energy. These http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26888/ ">motor proteins are what cause cells to contract and so are responsible for our muscle movements.
Researchers from Germany https://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1008991107 ">recently reported creating a molecular rotor by placing moving molecules inside a tiny hexagonal hole known as a nanopore in a thin piece of silver. The position and movement of the molecules meant they began to rotate around the hole like a rotor. Again, this form of nano-engine could be used to power a tiny robot around the body.
A rocket is the fastest man-made vehicle that can freely travel across the universe. https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21128324-100-nanorockets-could-deliver-drugs-inside-the-body/ ">Several groups http://phys.org/news/2012-01-bubble-propelled-microrockets-human-stomach.html ">of researchers have recently constructed a high-speed, remote-controlled nanoscale version of a rocket by combining nanoparticles with biological molecules.
http://openwetware.org/wiki/Biomod/2012/Titech/Nano-Jugglers ">In one case, the body of the rocket was made from a polystyrene bead covered in gold and chromium. This was attached to multiple “catalytic engine” molecules using strands of DNA. When placed in a solution of hydrogen peroxide, the engine molecules caused a chemical reaction that produced oxygen bubbles, forcing the rocket to move in the opposite direction. Shining a beam of ultra-violet light on one side of the rocket causes the DNA to break apart, detaching the engines and changing the rocket’s direction of travel. The researchers hope to develop the rocket so it can be used in any environment, for example to deliver drugs to a target area of the body.
Magnetic nano-vehicles for carrying drugs
My https://senlabs.org ">own research group is among those http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4917264 ">working on http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169409X1000133X ">a simpler way to carry drugs through the body that is already being explored with https://theconversation.com/lack-of-new-drugs-is-being-overcome-by-new-ways-of-delivering-old-ones-33109 ">magnetic nanoparticles. Drugs are injected into a magnetic shell structure that can expand in the presence of heat or light. This means that, once inserted into the body, they can be guided to the target area using magnets and then activated to expand and release their drug.
The technology is also being studied for medical imaging. Creating the nanoparticles to gather in certain tissues and then scanning the body with a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could help http://hms.harvard.edu/news/magnetic-nanoparticles-predict-diabetes-onset-3-21-12 ">highlight problems such as diabetes.
http://theconversation.com/profiles/tapas-sen-256294 ">Tapas Sen, Reader in Nanomaterials Chemistry, http://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-central-lancashire ">University of Central Lancashire
This article was originally published on http://theconversation.com ">The Conversation. Read the https://theconversation.com/meet-the-nanomachines-that-could-drive-a-medical-revolution-58107 ">original article.